Sunday, January 26, 2020

The effects of marine pollution

The effects of marine pollution Describe and discuss the major causes and effects of marine pollution. Suggest solutions for the problem and analyze how successful they may be. This essay concentrates on three major causes of marine pollution, which are the discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater, waste oil and plastics. The proposed solution to this problem will be prevention and pollution treatment, and eventually, the former one proves to be more effective. Firstly, this essay will present and explain the major causes and effects of marine pollution. Then, different solutions will be suggested in the second part. The final part will evaluate the effectiveness of these solutions and show that prevention may be more successful. The first main cause of the marine pollution is the discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater. Since both the cities and industrial estates are crowded with lots of people, there is more sewage flowing into rivers and then into oceans. Therefore, the quality of seawater gets worse and oxygen content decreases rapidly. Without oxygen, fishes living under the sea can not survive. Because of the nutrients in the sewage, seaweed may grow well firstly and eventually die when running out of food. The wastewater will finally destroy ecological balance. Waste oil is another significant cause of marine pollution. After flowing out of factories, or leaking from ships, or spilling in accidents, waste oil enters oceans. The total amount of waste oil is surprisingly great. A typical case which occurred in Taiwan in 2001 is an spill accident caused by a ship from Greece, which was broken and oil spilling into the sea resulted in serious pollution in its surrounding sea area (Chiau, 2005). Then the waste oil floats on the water and drifts with winds for it is lighter than water. Several elements in the waste oil is harmful to the living of creatures, especially to the living of seabirds. The oil sticks to the wings of seabirds so they can not fly and die on the sea one after another. Waste oil may let seabirds run into danger of becoming distinct. The third major cause of marine pollution is plastics. Plastics share most of the floating pollutant. There is a research that showed in the seashore of Japan, 72.9% of the total number of the wastes are plastics which weighed 53.8% of the total wastes, and in the neighbouring Russia, the statistics are 55.1% and 23.4% respectively (Islam, 2004).[C] The plastics can block the propeller of ships and may cause enormous accident. Plastics floating in the oceans can also cause lack of oxygen and have the similar effects that preventing respiration of creatures as the sewage does. There are two main solutions to the marine pollution problem. Prevention comes out first. It is suggested that government should perfect new intendance system of protecting the quality of water, and develop cooperation among countries (Islam, 2004). [D] It is also necessary to establish laws to keep the conduct of people and enterprises. The second main solution is pollution treatment, which contains setting up treatment plants and planting trees. Since trees are able to make soil secure and hold back water from running off, they can be planted in the crowded cities and factories which cause marine pollution. In Kocasoy, Mutlu, and Alagà ¶zs study (2008), [E] these solutions can reduce the discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater and improve the quality of seawater. It is unpractical to totally forbid the discharge of wastewater, and bringing some limits to it is a feasible treatment. Weighing the pros and cons, Prevention of marine pollution will be more effective to solve the problem. In one hand, prevention is the most essential theme of environmental management. The monitoring of water quality can be put into practice in advance to prevent damage to ocean environment. The restraint of ideology and conception on marine environment of people and enterprises will also obviously be helpful. In the other hand, always first polluting the marine environment and then taking counter-measures as treatment is irresponsible behaviour. Although these measures can reduce pollution to some extent, the disastrous consequences may have already existed and will continually come into being. This essay considers main causes and solutions of marine pollution. The prevention of marine pollution is proved to be more effective than pollution treatment because it can basically solve this problem and maintain the original environment. For the government, it is a challenge to take proper measures to prevent people continuing the polluting behaviour. However, there is still a long way to go in the future.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

A day in the Life of Arab

In the summer months of 1985 I was in Beirut, Lebanon on a two months vacation where I met some good people. Ahmed is a grade school teacher in Beirut and I meet him barely one week after I arrived in Beirut, when I was hanging around, pondering about the historical significance of Mount Hermon as it was mentioned in the Biblical history.He lives in the outskirt of Beirut a few blocks from where I am living and he has a deep knowledge of the Lebanese history and culture. One time, I ask Ahmed about what he thinks of Israel, as the Biblical text seemed to point out to Israel as God’s favored nation. Ahmed would usually flare-up when the issue concerns Israel.As I read on some of their historical literature I have learned that despite of the relative wealth of Lebanon, its leaders were divided into three main groups on some national issues.The first group wanted Lebanon to be part of France, while the second group called for the integration of Lebanon with in the framework of Ar ab unity, and the third wanted independence of Lebanon from France. As I was analyzing the political situation in Lebanon during this time, I realized that it was the spirit of Arab nationalism that had prevailed, as most of the Lebanese believed Lebanon is an inseparable part of the world. I noticed that most Lebanese are devout Arab nationalist and their cultures were distinctly in the context of the Arab world. One of its writers even wrote that Lebanon was culturally influenced by the Mediterranean and by the ancient people that inhabited this basin.  As I go around the cities, faces of western influences were evident in most cities through the many facades particularly in the main cities. The Arab traditional lifestyle which revolves firmly around the family, socializing, and hospitality were exactly the case in most families, although those living outside the city especially in the remote areas, retained their old customs and tradition. As I had observed, Lebanese people are generally literate and Lebanon has one of the most technically prepared, and educated populations in the Middle East.In matters of food and drinks, most of Lebanese cuisines were a combination of the European cuisine and the eastern spicy. The Lebanese traditional dishes still exist in many places, which are simple preparations, using grains, pulses and vegetable and fruit. A Typical Lebanese meal on the other hand is the mezze.This is a thorough spread of forty or fifty hors d’oeuvres or simply a salad bowl. However, unlike in other Arabian countries, Lebanese people were the most frequently disturbed people by war, by invasion and annexation of different countries surrounding her. Lebanon at one time was under French government and at some other period was invaded by Syria and Israel. Despite of those troubling wars, and internal chaos, the Lebanese people was thriving economically.In my observation however, despite that this country is an Arab state many of its inhabitant s are Christians and at some times was governed by a Maronite Christian but was assassinated in February 2005. As I analyzed the social and cultural life of the Lebanese society I found out that the root of internal chaos in Lebanon was, there is an unresolved character of the Lebanese national culture.Was the character of the Lebanese society Arab and Muslim in orientation or Christian and Western? There are several strong communities competing to gain control of power in Lebanon such as the Maronites, Christians, the Nusayris, the Antioch Turks, and Bedouin, which reveals the multi-culturism of the Lebanese society that in my view, this multiculturalism should be clearly understood by its people in order for them to gain peace within, and in international relations.ReferenceLebanon

Friday, January 10, 2020

Belonging Essay Essay

Concept, perceptions and ideas to belong or not to belong differ from person to person. This is due to experiences that shape ones personality that come through personal, cultural, social and historical context. The idea of belonging allows one to have some sort of connection and communal with people, places, groups, communities and the wider world. In contrast not belonging causes one to suffer from alienation, exclusion and marginalisation. As a result these factors can cause an individual to be at different states of depression depending on one’s personality and situation. However in society, belonging has become and essential to life. Many texts have explored the notion of belonging and not belonging; the play Rainbows End by Jane Harrison and the short film Between the Flags Produced by Jayce White explore the concept of belonging and not belonging to place and people through several forms. Rainbows End by Jane Harrison is a play that explores the concept of belonging and not belonging thorough Harrison’s choice of cultural and historical context at the time. The play is set in the 1950’s during the time Queen Elizabeth II was visiting Australia and whilst many racist policies where practiced such as the Assimilation, Paternalistic and the White Australia policy which all discriminated and alienated the Aboriginal people from the wider community. Throughout the play, it is manifest the Aboriginal people belong and do not belong to certain placed and people. This is shown through a conversation that Nan Dear his with Dolly about her birthplace, â€Å"Well, of course I’m not gunna die. Not here anyway. Gotta go back to my old place to do that. Nan Dear Act One Scene One. This quote conveys Nan Dear’s idea of belonging to place, she assertively expresses to dolly that this is not her place and she will eventually return to where she fits most, through this may not be physically but rather spiritually, which is also part of the aboriginal culture and traditions. The understanding to belong, not belong and the longing to belong alters from one individual to another, this is extensively due to one’s overall background experiences which have ultimately shaped ones thoughts and ideas on the various notions of belonging. This is very evident throughout the play, Rainbows End as different perceptions of belonging are conveyed through conversations and incidents that occurs from characters of different social and historical background. An example of such is the conversation that Errol and Dolly have about the differences in their families. Errol attempts to convince Dolly that he is willing to give her a better life, if she agrees to marry him but away from her family. Dolly does not agree with Errol Fisher’s views on a better life and continues to question his thoughts through the repetition of his words. DOLLY: You want me to leave here for ever? ERROL: I’m offering you a better life. DOLLY: A better life? ERROL: In the city there’s department stores so big that you can spend all day in them. Why in the city there’s even little restaurants you can eat spaghetti, just like Italy. DOLLY: Spaghetti? This conversation portrayed Errol and Dolly’s different perceptions of belonging. The use of the repetition is ironic as Dolly has her family and place does not understand the meaning of â€Å"better life†. The connection that dolly has with her family and place has created her to feel comfortable there regardless of all the discriminatory acts of the time. Errol and Dollydiffering opinions come through their social and cultural context which causes them to continuously clash between each other. â€Å"Your world. And you’re just assuming that your world is better. But actually, when I think about it- when I think about nasty Nancy – she has everything that opens and shuts. I’m not sure it isbetter. I wouldn’t trade placer with her for anything. And as far as you’re offering †¦ no thank you. This is my place. I’m staying right here with my Mum and Nan† despite Dolly not being a young adult who has subjected to racial incidents, that could be prevented in the future if she accepts to marryErrol The short film Between the Flags is a Tropfest film that references and represents the incident that had occurred in the year of 2005, Cronulla riots, concerning two racial groups; the Australian and the Lebanese, which caused violence and division amongst the two races. If mixing of the two diverse racial groups had occurred at the time it often resulted in a brawl and further conflict; however the filmBetween the Flags argues this conviction through a humorous way. Several forms such as: humour, irony, popular culture and themes such as the beach and â€Å"typical Australian bloke† support the idea that two or more people can intertwine together regardless of any dispute one being removed from the external society. The use of irony is used throughout the complete film, it creates humour in-between the two characters which generates harmony amongst them, this is apparent in the film. An example of this is when the Lebanese character (character are not given names instead each represents an ethnicity which is shown through their choice of costume) approaches the Australian bloke: â€Å"What’s goin on† – Lebanese boy â€Å"G’day mate† – Australian bloke â€Å"Here for the riots† – Lebanese boy â€Å"Yeah, looks like we’re the first ones here† – Australian bloke â€Å"Maybe we should wait for a more people† – Lebanese boy  The conversation between them continues the irony of the situation is the conversation that occurs, and also the use of such words such as â€Å"mate†, as both of them are at the beach to riot against each other; instead they involve themselves together in a communal conversation. Throughout give-and-take of words between the two characters they both felt a sense belonging and ease towards each other even through the beach was supposed to be a place of non-belonging and dispute. This was majorly due to them being part of the popular culture and sharing the same interest. Their reactions were shown through the use of close up camera shots, as they enable the viewer to understand the characters emotions and have a sense of empathy towards them. The short film Between the Flags uses the beach as the setting to the film, as this is also references to the Cronulla riots as they had occurred at the beach. The attitudes that the characters have towards the beach affirm that it is a place of regular social call, also part of each ones character regardless of their ethnic background. Two characters connection with the beach enables the viewers to have an immediate understanding that it is a place of belonging to one another. This is manifest in the film through the connection that the characters grow due to playing a game of cricket, nevertheless in the film the beginning of the game the Lebanese character says â€Å"umm I don’t usually do this but†¦Ã¢â‚¬  this had displayed to the audience that he is not too liking of cricket but he starts to play as it is most appropriate to do so. This was shown through a continuous full camera shot to show the characters interaction with each ther and to also display the setting of the film. Throughout exploring and analysing texts it has become most evident that people views of belonging is constructed through their perception on the place. This concept was explored in the two texts Rainbows End by Jane Harrison and the short film Between the Flags produced by Jayce White as both texts had explored belonging, not belonging or the longing to belong to a place through the perceptions and the social, historical, cultural and personal context of an individual determined their sense of belonging and not belonging.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Sexual Orientation And Gender Identity - 1496 Words

What would you think if you knew that throughout your whole life, an untrue assumption had been made about you? How would you feel about total strangers believing that the assumption was reality, the media advertising products and marketing movies to you based on this assumption, and even your family supporting it? If the assumption was about a personal issue, this would be hurtful, confusing, and maybe even psychologically damaging. This hypothetical situation comes alive when examining the problem of heteronormativity: defined as believing that everyone is heterosexual, thus ignoring the LGBT population. To someone who is heterosexual, it might not seem like a big deal for straightness to be the â€Å"norm.† However, the more than 8 million LGBT people in America are affected by heteronormativity everywhere they turn. It is true that civil rights for LGBT people have progressed enormously. As of January 2, 2015, 35 states have legalized same-sex marriage, 18 states have work place discrimination laws that cover both sexual orientation and gender identity, and the majority of public schools must have bullying policies that protect LGBT students. Despite how far we have come, there is still a lot of work to do in the area of acceptance. The only way homophobia will be diminished on a large scale is through education. This education can be spurred by eradicating heteronormative standards in the media, in the sales market, and most importantly in institutional settings, namely,Show MoreRelatedSexual Orientation And Gender Identity863 Words   |  4 PagesRecent studies estimate that between one and nine million children in the United States have at least one parent who is either lesbian, gay, or transgender. 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