Saturday, August 31, 2019

Cultural Democracy

Cultural democracy – Summary This is the summary of the conference or debate between the two speakers Mr. Jerry Sambuaga and Mr. Lee Nathanael Santoso, discussing the topic of Cultural Democracy. The first topic that is discussed was on the ideal form of democracy. Mr. Jerry said that the ideal form of democracy is the one that prioritize freedom, to have liberalism implemented, which will eventually lead to individualism. In his opinion liberalism should be implemented in all aspects, such as in politics and economy.The examples of liberalism in politics are presidential election or parties, whereas the example of liberalism in economy is human rights. The freedom of speech, freedom to express opinions, since 1998, is the key to liberalism (direct democracy). On the other hand, when discussing the topic on the ideal form of democracy, Mr. Nathanael raises up the question â€Å"Whether democracy is universal or locally? † as his comeback. People now have human rights, t he right to choose what they think democracy is. He said that in Singapore the government plays a larger role compared than the role of freedom of speech (representative democracy).Mr. jerry said that democracy is invented in the west, and the democracy in Indonesia is still very fragile, there are aspects that have not yet been touched such as civil society, law enforcement, etc. There is a statement that Mr. Jerry gave that Mr. Nathanael also agrees on, and that is â€Å"Democracy is not a destination but a goal†. Mr. Nathanael added that democracy indeed is a mean or a goal, and the goal is not democracy but to make sure that every people have basic necessities (security, etc). Mr.Nathanael asked a rhetorical question, † which political system that can guarantee their country to be flexible enough to attain political grid lock? † From his point of view, Singapore is the closest one that has been able to achieve this. The second topic that the moderator discusse d was, â€Å"Should a country this big (Indonesia) use a federal system or a unitary system? † Mr. Nathanael said that our country should adopt a mix of the two systems. From Mr. jerry's point of view, Indonesia should use a federal system, because Indonesia is very diverse, if we force something it can cause damages. Mr. Nathanael debated Mr.Jerry's statement by saying that Singapore also has diversity, but they know how to harmonized the different point of views, opinions, etc. He said, â€Å"Minorities and other ethnicity receive the right to take part, to give a voice. † Mr. Jerry debated Mr. Nathanael’s statement by saying that Singapore has an oppressive or an authoritarian system, instead of having a freedom of speech. â€Å"Singapore has a good system but can it last with that system? Indonesia may not yet be successful now, but with the existence of liberty, and opportunity given for people to be able to govern, may lead Indonesia to become a developed country. Mr. Nathanael debated Mr. Jerry’s statement saying, â€Å"The authoritarian system in Singapore is different compared to China, in Singapore the law is clear, you can have a say on criticizing the government, but you must have facts to support it. Mr. Jerry’s opinion is that our country is best suited with having a little number parties, because a large number of parties slows down decision making, and does nut suit the presidential system. While Mr. Nathanael said that democracy is not about political parties, part of government,  it is about achieving national interests.He said that, â€Å"only the parties with money that can win (in indo), but in Singapore if you have a good vision you will be heard†. â€Å"Should democracy control freedom? † Mr. Jerry said that one’s freedom of expression could violate another's freedom of expression. Freedom should be controlled but not limited. Democracy may not be the best system, but it is stil l better to educate the people to participate. He added, â€Å"Freedom of rights of Singapore must be developed. † Mr. Nathanael commented, â€Å"Singapore are convinced that this is the system for them, the issue is Singapore’s system should be more relevant. Singapore’s human rights can’t be compared with Indonesia’s priority of economic prosperity. Cultural Democracy Critical Analysis Cultural Democracy is the term for a philosophy or policy emphasizing pluralism, participation, and equity within and between cultures. Which consists of a set of related commitments such as, protecting and promoting cultural diversity, and the right to culture for everyone in our society and around the world;? encouraging active participation in community cultural life;? enabling people to participate in policy decisions that affect the quality of our cultural lives; and ? ssuring fair and equitable access to cultural resources and support. There are three basic types of democracy: Direct democracy is a political system where the citizens participate in the decision-making personally, Representative democracy involves the selection of government officials by the people being represented, and Parliamentary democracy is a representative democracy where government is appointed by representatives as opposed to a ‘presidential rule' wherein the President is both head of state and the head of government and is elected by the voters.In my opinion, I think the ideal form of democracy should be the one where liberalism is highly considered, but where there is also a balance in government involvement. Because, as the people, we know what our country needs most, but with the diversity that our country possess, and with the different opinions that people have, there should be a representative democracy that can represent the people and chooses the best decisions for the people and the country. Should democracy control freedom?I think that freedom is both a positive and a negative think, if not controlled properly. People have different opinions, and if all of them have the freedom of speech, then there will be a moment where their freedom of expression will clash with others’ freedom of expression. That is why that freedom should also be controlled to a point of degree where people would still have the freedom of speech. The main reason why Indonesia has not been able to reach its full potential is because we have weak institutions, hence weak democracy.Indonesia should learn the complexity that is democracy, the many aspects that is consists of such as  legal certainty, transparency, freedom, etc. The one thing that Indonesia should be able to do to improve as a country is by knowing how to prioritize. Of course, in democracy alone there are many aspects that it consists of, and to manage this by knowing which to prioritize first, to the extent where all the aspects will be covered one by one. Indonesia should be consistent in following or running a liberal system.Of course, there are processes that need to be done; we need to fight for the freedom of the economy. The best solution is to have a modification based on the aspiration of the people. We should be able to learn, and adopt all the good elements that each country possesses, mix them up and implement them as our democratic system. By: Pamela Lemmuela (04320120057) FISIP/HI/2012 RESEARCH : ? Democracy? From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A woman casts her vote in the second round of the French presidential election of 2007 Part of the Politics series|Democracy| History  Ã‚ · Outline| Basic forms| * Direct * Representative| Variants| * Anticipatory * Consensus * Deliberative * Demarchy * Economic * Electronic * Grassroots * Illiberal * Inclusive * Liberal * Non-partisan * Ochlocracy * Participatory * Radical * Religious * Representative direct * Sociocracy * Soviet * Totalitarian * Other| Politics portal| * v t e| Part of the Polit ics series| Basic forms ofgovernment| Power structure| * Confederal * Federal * Hegemony * Imperial * Unitary| Power source| Democracy * Direct * Representative * Other * Monarchy * Absolute * Constitutional * Oligarchy * Aristocracy * Meritocracy * Military junta * Plutocracy * Stratocracy * Technocracy * Timocracy * Other * Anarchy * Authoritarianism * Autocracy * Anocracy * Despotism * Dictatorship * Kritarchy * Republic * Theocracy * Totalitarianism| List of forms of government| Politics portal| * v t e|Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Democracy allows people to participate equally—either directly or through elected representatives—in the proposal, development, and creation of laws. It encompasses social, economic and cultural conditions that enable the free and equal practice of political self-determination. The term originates from the Greek (demokratia) â€Å"rule of th e people†,[1] which was coined from demos) â€Å"people† and (kratos) â€Å"power† in the 5th century BCE to denote the political systems then existing in Greek city-states, notably Athens; the term is an antonym to â€Å"rule of an elite†. The English word dates to the 16th century, from the older Middle French and Middle Latin equivalents. A democratic government contrasts to forms of government where power is either held by one, as in a monarchy, or where power is held by a small number of individuals, as in an oligarchy or aristocracy.Nevertheless, these oppositions, inherited from Greek philosophy, are now ambiguous because contemporary governments have mixed democratic, oligarchic, and monarchic elements. Karl Popper defined democracy in contrast to dictatorship or tyranny, thus focusing on opportunities for the people to control their leaders and to oust them without the need for a revolution. [2] Several variants of democracy exist, but there ar e two basic forms, both of which concern how the whole body of citizens executes its will. One form of emocracy is direct democracy, in which citizens have direct and active participation in the decision making of the government. In most modern democracies, the whole body of citizens remain the sovereign power but political power is exercised indirectly through elected representatives; this is called representative democracy. The concept of representative democracy arose largely from ideas and institutions that developed during the European Middle Ages, the Age of Enlightenment, and the American and French Revolutions. [3] Contents   [hide]   * 1 Definition * 2 History * 2. Ancient origins * 2. 2 Middle Ages * 2. 3 Modern era * 3 Countries * 4 Types * 4. 1 Basic forms * 4. 2 Variants * 4. 3 Non-governmental * 5 Theory * 5. 1 Aristotle * 5. 2 Rationale * 5. 3 Ideal forms * 5. 4 Practice * 5. 5 Criticism * 6 Development * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links| [edit] Defini tion While there is no universally accepted definition of â€Å"democracy,†[4] equality and freedom have both been identified as important characteristics of democracy since ancient times. 5] These principles are reflected in all citizens being equal before the law and having equal access to legislative processes. For example, in a representative democracy, every vote has equal weight, no unreasonable restrictions can apply to anyone seeking to become a representative, and the freedom of its citizens is secured by legitimized rights and liberties which are generally protected by a constitution. [6][7] One theory holds that democracy requires three fundamental principles: 1) upward control, i. e. overeignty residing at the lowest levels of authority, 2) political equality, and 3) social norms by which individuals and institutions only consider acceptable acts that reflect the first two principles of upward control and political equality. [8] The term â€Å"democracy† is sometimes used as shorthand for liberal democracy, which is a variant of representative democracy that may include elements such as political pluralism; equality before the law; the right to petition elected officials for redress of grievances; due process; civil liberties; human rights; and lements of civil society outside the government. [citation needed] In the United States, separation of powers is often cited as a central attribute, but in other countries, such as the United Kingdom, the dominant principle is that of parliamentary sovereignty (while maintaining judicial independence). [citation needed] In other cases, â€Å"democracy† is used to mean direct democracy. Though the term â€Å"democracy† is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles also are applicable to private organizations. Majority rule is often listed as a characteristic of democracy. by whom? ] Hence, democracy allows for political minorities to be oppressed by the â₠¬Å"tyranny of the majority† in the absence of legal protections of individual or group rights. An essential part of an â€Å"ideal† representative democracy is competitive elections that are fair both substantively[9] and procedurally. [10] Furthermore, freedom of political expression, freedom of speech, and freedom of the press are considered to be essential rights that allow citizens to be adequately informed and able to vote according to their own interests. 11][12] It has also been suggested that a basic feature of democracy is the capacity of individuals to participate freely and fully in the life of their society. [13] With its emphasis on notions of social contract and the collective will of the people, democracy can also be characterized as a form of political collectivism because it is defined as a form of government in which all eligible citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. [14] While democracy is often equated with the republic an form of government, the term â€Å"republic† classically has encompassed both democracies and aristocracies. 15][16] [edit] History Main article: History of democracy [edit] Ancient origins See also: Athenian democracy Cleisthenes, â€Å"father of Athenian democracy†, modern bust. The term â€Å"democracy† first appeared in ancient Greek political and philosophical thought in the city-state of Athens. [17][18] Led by Cleisthenes, Athenians established what is generally held as the first democracy in 508-507 BCE. Cleisthenes is referred to as â€Å"the father of Athenian democracy. [19] Athenian democracy took the form of a direct democracy, and it had two distinguishing features: the random selection of ordinary citizens to fill the few existing government administrative and judicial offices,[20] and a legislative assembly consisting of all Athenian citizens. [21] All citizens were eligible to speak and vote in the assembly, which set the laws of the city st ate. However, Athenian citizenship excluded women, slaves, foreigners ( metoikoi), and males under 20 years old. [citation needed] Of the estimated 200,000 to 400,000 inhabitants of Athens, there were between 30,000 and 60,000 citizens. citation needed] The exclusion of large parts of the population from the citizen body is closely related to the ancient understanding of citizenship. In most of antiquity the benefit of citizenship was tied to the obligation to fight war campaigns. [citation needed] Athenian democracy was not only direct in the sense that decisions were made by the assembled people, but also directest in the sense that the people through the assembly, boule and courts of law controlled the entire political process and a large proportion of citizens were involved constantly in the public business. 22] Even though the rights of the individual were not secured by the Athenian constitution in the modern sense (the ancient Greeks had no word for â€Å"rights†[23]), the Athenians enjoyed their liberties not in opposition to the government but by living in a city that was not subject to another power and by not being subjects themselves to the rule of another person. [24] Even though the Roman Republic contributed significantly to certain aspects of democracy, only a minority of Romans were citizens with votes in elections for representatives.The votes of the powerful were given more weight through a system of gerrymandering, so most high officials, including members of the Senate, came from a few wealthy and noble families. [25] However, many notable exceptions did occur. [citation needed] [edit] Middle Ages During the Middle Ages, there were various systems involving elections or assemblies, although often only involving a small amount of the population, the election of Gopala in Bengal region of Indian Subcontinent (within a aste system), the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (10% of population), the Althing in Iceland, the Logting in the Faero e Islands, certain medieval Italian city-states such as Venice, the tuatha system in early medieval Ireland, the Veche in Novgorod and Pskov Republics of medieval Russia, Scandinavian Things, The States in Tirol and Switzerland and the autonomous merchant city of Sakai in the 16th century in Japan. However, participation was often restricted to a minority, and so may be better classified as oligarchy.Most regions in medieval Europe were ruled by clergy or feudal lords. The Kouroukan Fouga divided the Mali Empire into ruling clans (lineages) that were represented at a great assembly called the Gbara. However, the charter made Mali more similar to a constitutional monarchy than a democratic republic. A little closer to modern democracy were the Cossack republics of Ukraine in the 16th–17th centuries: Cossack Hetmanate and Zaporizhian Sich. The highest post – the Hetman – was elected by the representatives from the country's districts.Magna Carta, 1215, England The Parliament of England had its roots in the restrictions on the power of kings written into Magna Carta, which explicitly protected certain rights of the King's subjects, whether free or fettered – and implicitly supported what became English writ of habeas corpus, safeguarding individual freedom against unlawful imprisonment with right to appeal. The first elected parliament was De Montfort's Parliament in England in 1265.However only a small minority actually had a voice; Parliament was elected by only a few percent of the population, (less than 3% as late as 1780[26]), and the power to call parliament was at the pleasure of the monarch (usually when he or she needed funds). The power of Parliament increased in stages over the succeeding centuries. After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the English Bill of Rights of 1689 was enacted, which codified certain rights and increased the influence of Parliament. 26] The franchise was slowly increased and Parliament gradually gaine d more power until the monarch became largely a figurehead. [27] As the franchise was increased, it also was made more uniform, as many so-called rotten boroughs, with a handful of voters electing a Member of Parliament, were eliminated in the Reform Act of 1832. In North America, the English Puritans who migrated from 1620 established colonies in New England whose governance was democratic and which contributed to the democratic development of the United States. 28] [edit] Modern era [edit] 18th and 19th centuries The first nation in modern history to adopt a democratic constitution was the short-lived Corsican Republic in 1755. This Corsican Constitution was the first based on Enlightenment principles and even allowed for female suffrage, something that was granted in other democracies only by the 20th century. In 1789, Revolutionary France adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and, although short-lived, the National Convention was elected by all males in 1792. [29]The establishment of universal male suffrage in France in 1848 was an important milestone in the history of democracy. Universal male suffrage was definitely established in France in March 1848 in the wake of the French Revolution of 1848. [30] In 1848, several revolutions broke out in Europe as rulers were confronted with popular demands for liberal constitutions and more democratic government. [31] Although not described as a democracy by the founding fathers, the United States founders also shared a determination to root the American experiment in the principle of natural freedom and equality. 32] The United States Constitution, adopted in 1788, provided for an elected government and protected civil rights and liberties for some. In the colonial period before 1776, and for some time after, often only adult white male property owners could vote; enslaved Africans, most free black people and most women were not extended the franchise. On the American frontier, democracy became a way of life, with widespread social, economic and political equality. 33] However, slavery was a social and economic institution, particularly in eleven states in the American South, such that a variety of organizations were established advocating the movement of black people from the United States to locations where they would enjoy greater freedom and equality. In the 1860 United States Census the slave population in the United States had grown to four million,[34] and in Reconstruction after the Civil War (late 1860s) the newly freed slaves became citizens with (in the case of men) a nominal right to vote.Full enfranchisement of citizens was not secured until after the African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968) gained passage by the United States Congress of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. [35][36] [edit] 20th and 21st centuries The number of nations 1800–2003 scoring 8 or higher on Polity IV scale, another widely used measure of democracy. 20th cent ury transitions to liberal democracy have come in successive â€Å"waves of democracy,† variously resulting from wars, revolutions, decolonization, religious and economic circumstances.World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian empires resulted in the creation of new nation-states from Europe, most of them at least nominally democratic. In the 1920s democracy flourished, but the Great Depression brought disenchantment, and most of the countries of Europe, Latin America, and Asia turned to strong-man rule or dictatorships. Fascism and dictatorships flourished in Nazi Germany, Italy, Spain and Portugal, as well as nondemocratic regimes in the Baltics, the Balkans, Brazil, Cuba, China, and Japan, among others. 37] World War II brought a definitive reversal of this trend in western Europe. The democratization of the American, British, and French sectors of occupied Germany (disputed[38]), Austria, Italy, and the occupied Japan served as a model for the la ter theory of regime change. However, most of Eastern Europe, including the Soviet sector of Germany fell into the non-democratic Soviet bloc. The war was followed by decolonization, and again most of the new independent states had nominally democratic constitutions. India emerged as the world's largest democracy and continues to be so. 39] By 1960, the vast majority of country-states were nominally democracies, although most of the world's populations lived in nations that experienced sham elections, and other forms of subterfuge (particularly in Communist nations and the former colonies. ) A subsequent wave of democratization brought substantial gains toward true liberal democracy for many nations. Spain, Portugal (1974), and several of the military dictatorships in South America returned to civilian rule in the late 1970s and early 1980s (Argentina in 1983, Bolivia, Uruguay in 1984, Brazil in 1985, and Chile in the early 1990s).This was followed by nations in East and South Asia by the mid-to-late 1980s. Economic malaise in the 1980s, along with resentment of Soviet oppression, contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union, the associated end of the Cold War, and the democratization and liberalization of the former Eastern bloc countries. The most successful of the new democracies were those geographically and culturally closest to western Europe, and they are now members or candidate members of the European Union. Some researchers consider that contemporary Russia is not a true democracy and instead resembles a form of dictatorship. 40] The Economist's Democracy Index as published in December 2011, with greener colours representing more democratic countries and clearly authoritarian countries in dark red. The liberal trend spread to some nations in Africa in the 1990s, most prominently in South Africa. Some recent examples of attempts of liberalization include the Indonesian Revolution of 1998, the Bulldozer Revolution in Yugoslavia, the Rose Revolution in Georgia, the Orange Revolution in Ukraine, the Cedar Revolution in Lebanon, the Tulip Revolution in Kyrgyzstan, and the Jasmine Revolution in Tunisia.According to Freedom House, in 2007 there were 123 electoral democracies (up from 40 in 1972). [41] According to World Forum on Democracy, electoral democracies now represent 120 of the 192 existing countries and constitute 58. 2 percent of the world's population. At the same time liberal democracies i. e. countries Freedom House regards as free and respectful of basic human rights and the rule of law are 85 in number and represent 38 percent of the global population. [42] In 2010 the United Nations declared September 15 the International Day of Democracy. 43] [edit] Countries The following countries are categorized by the Democracy Index 2011 as Full democracy:[44] 1. Norway? 2. Iceland? 3. Denmark? 4. Sweden? 5. New Zealand   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  | 6. Australia? 7. Switzerland? 8. Canada? 9. Finland? 10. Netherlands   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã ‚  | 11. Luxembourg   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  ? 12. Ireland? 13. Austria? 14. Germany? 15. Malta| 16. Czech Republic   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  ? 17. Uruguay? 18. United Kingdom? 19. United States? 20. Costa Rica| 21. Japan? 22. South Korea? 23. Belgium? 24. Mauritius? 25.Spain| The Index assigns 53 countries to the next category, Flawed democracy: Argentina, Benin, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cape Verde, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Estonia, France, Ghana, Greece, Guyana, Hungary, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Latvia, Lesotho, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malaysia, Mali, India, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Namibia, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Trinidad and Tobago, Zambia[44] [edit]Types See also: List of types of democracy Democracy has taken a number of forms, both in theory and practice. Some varieties of democracy provide better representation and more freedom for their citizens than others. [45][46] However, if any democracy is not structured so as to prohibit the government from excluding the people from the legislative process, or any branch of government from altering the separation of powers in its own favor, then a branch of the system can accumulate too much power and destroy the democracy. 47][48][49] World's states colored by form of government as of 20111 Presidential republics2|   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Semi-presidential republics2|   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Parliamentary republics2|   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Single-party republics|   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Parliamentary constitutional monarchies|   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Absolute monarchies|   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Military dictatorships|   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Parliamentary constitutional monarchies in which the monarch personally exercises power|   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Republics with an executive president dependent on a parliament|   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Countries which do not fit any of the above systems| | This map was complied according to the Wikipedia list of countries by system of government. See there for sources. 2Several states constitutionally deemed to be multiparty republics are broadly described by outsiders as authoritarian states. This map presents only the de jure form of government, and not the de facto degree of democracy. The following kinds of democracy are not exclusive of one another: many specify details of aspects that are independent of one another and can co-exist in a single system. [edit] Basic forms [edit] DirectMain article: Direct democracy Direct democracy is a political system where the citizens participate in the decision-making personally, contrary to relying on intermediaries or representatives. The supporters of direct democracy argue that democracy is more than merely a procedural issue. A direct democracy gives the voting population the power to: Landsgemeinde of the canton of Appenzell Innerr hoden, example for direct democracy in Switzerland 1. Change constitutional laws, 2. Put forth initiatives, referendums and suggestions for laws, 3.Give binding orders to elective officials, such as revoking them before the end of their elected term, or initiating a lawsuit for breaking a campaign promise. Of the three measures mentioned, most operate in developed democracies today. This is part of a gradual shift towards direct democracies. Elements of direct democracy exist on a local level in many countries, though these systems often coexist with representative assemblies. Usually, this includes equal (and more or less direct) participation in the proposal, development and passage of legislation into law. [14] [edit]Representative Main article: Representative democracy Representative democracy involves the selection of government officials by the people being represented. If the head of state is also democratically elected then it is called a democratic republic. [50] The most c ommon mechanisms involve election of the candidate with a majority or a plurality of the votes. Representatives may be elected or become diplomatic representatives by a particular district (or constituency), or represent the entire electorate through proportional systems, with some using a combination of the two.Some representative democracies also incorporate elements of direct democracy, such as referendums. A characteristic of representative democracy is that while the representatives are elected by the people to act in the people's interest, they retain the freedom to exercise their own judgment as how best to do so. [edit] Parliamentary Main article: Parliamentary system Parliamentary democracy is a representative democracy where government is appointed by representatives as opposed to a ‘presidential rule' wherein the President is both head of state and the head of government and is elected by the voters.Under a parliamentary democracy, government is exercised by delegat ion to an executive ministry and subject to ongoing review, checks and balances by the legislative parliament elected by the people. [51][52][53][54][55] Parliamentary systems have the right to dismiss a Prime Minister at any point in time that they feel he or she is not doing their job to the expectations of the legislature. This is done through a Vote of No Confidence where the legislature decides whether or not to remove the Prime Minister from office by a majority support for his or her dismissal. 56] In some countries, the Prime Minister can also call an election whenever he or she so chooses, and typically the Prime Minister will hold an election when he or she knows that they are in good favor with the public as to get re-elected. In other parliamentary democracies extra elections are virtually never held, a minority government being preferred until the next ordinary elections. [edit] Presidential Main article: Presidential system Presidential Democracy is a system where the public elects the president through free and fair elections.The president serves as both the head of state and head of government controlling most of the executive powers. The president serves for a specific term and cannot exceed that amount of time. Elections typically have a fixed date and aren’t easily changed. The president has direct control over the cabinet, the members of which are specifically appointed by the president himself. [56] The president cannot be easily removed from office by the legislature, but he or she cannot remove members of the legislative branch any more easily.This provides some measure of separation of powers. In consequence however, the president and the legislature may end up in the control of separate parties, allowing one to block the other and thereby interfere with the orderly operation of the state. This may be the reason why presidential democracy is not very common outside the Americas. [56] A semi-presidential system is a system of demo cracy in which the government includes both a prime minister and a president. The particular powers held by the prime minister and president vary by country. 56] [edit] Constitutional Main article: Constitutional democracy A constitutional democracy is a representative democracy in which the ability of the elected representatives to exercise decision-making power is subject to the rule of law, and usually moderated by a constitution that emphasizes the protection of the rights and freedoms of individuals, and which places constraints on the leaders and on the extent to which the will of the majority can be exercised against the rights of minorities (see civil liberties).In a constitutional democracy, it is possible for some large-scale decisions to emerge from the many individual decisions that citizens are free to make. In other words, citizens can â€Å"vote with their feet† or â€Å"vote with their dollars†, resulting in significant informal government-by-the-masses that exercises many â€Å"powers† associated with formal government elsewhere. [edit] Hybrid Some modern democracies that are predominately representative in nature also heavily rely upon forms of political action that are directly democratic.These democracies, which combine elements of representative democracy and direct democracy, are termed hybrid democracies[57] or semi-direct democracies. Examples include Switzerland and some U. S. states, where frequent use is made of referendums and initiatives. Although managed by a representative legislative body, Switzerland allows for initiatives and referendums at both the local and federal levels. In the past 120 years less than 250 initiatives have been put to referendum.The populace has been conservative, approving only about 10% of the initiatives put before them; in addition, they have often opted for a version of the initiative rewritten by government. [citation needed] In the United States, no mechanisms of direct democrac y exists at the federal level, but over half of the states and many localities provide for citizen-sponsored ballot initiatives (also called â€Å"ballot measures†, â€Å"ballot questions† or â€Å"propositions†), and the vast majority of states allow for referendums.Examples include the extensive use of referendums in the US state of California, which is a state that has more than 20 million voters. [58] In New England Town meetings are often used, especially in rural areas, to manage local government. This creates a hybrid form of government, with a local direct democracy and a state government which is representative. For example, most Vermont towns hold annual town meetings in March in which town officers are elected, budgets for the town and schools are voted on, and citizens have an opportunity to speak and by heard on political matters. 59] [edit] Variants [edit] Republic Main article: Republicanism In contemporary usage, the term democracy refers to a go vernment chosen by the people, whether it is direct or representative. [60] The term republic has many different meanings, but today often refers to a representative democracy with an elected head of state, such as a president, serving for a limited term, in contrast to states with a hereditary monarch as a head of state, even if these states also are representative democracies with an elected or appointed head of government such as a prime minister. 61] The Founding Fathers of the United States rarely praised and often criticized democracy, which in their time tended to specifically mean direct democracy, often without the protection of a Constitution enshrining basic rights; James Madison argued, especially in The Federalist No. 10, that what distinguished a democracy from a republic was that the former became weaker as it got larger and suffered more violently from the effects of faction, whereas a republic could get stronger as it got larger and combats faction by its very struc ture.What was critical to American values, John Adams insisted,[62] was that the government be â€Å"bound by fixed laws, which the people have a voice in making, and a right to defend. † As Benjamin Franklin was exiting after writing the U. S. constitution, a woman asked him â€Å"Well, Doctor, what have we got—a republic or a monarchy? â€Å". He replied â€Å"A republic—if you can keep it. â€Å"[63] Queen Elizabeth II, a constitutional monarch. [edit] Constitutional monarchy Main article: constitutional monarchyInitially after the American and French revolutions, the question was open whether a democracy, in order to restrain unchecked majority rule, should have an elite upper chamber, the members perhaps appointed meritorious experts or having lifetime tenures, or should have a constitutional monarch with limited but real powers. Some countries (as Britain, the Netherlands, Belgium, Scandinavian countries, Thailand, Japan and Bhutan) turned powerful mon archs into constitutional monarchs with limited or, often gradually, merely symbolic roles.Often the monarchy was abolished along with the aristocratic system (as in France, China, Russia, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Greece and Egypt). Many nations had elite upper houses of legislatures which often had lifetime tenure, but eventually these lost power (as in Britain) or else became elective and remained powerful (as in the United States). [edit] Socialist Socialist thought has several different views on democracy. Social democracy, democratic socialism, and the dictatorship of the proletariat (usually exercised through Soviet democracy) are some examples.Many democratic socialists and social democrats believe in a form of participatory democracy and workplace democracy combined with a representative democracy. Within Marxist orthodoxy there is a hostility to what is commonly called â€Å"liberal democracy†, which they simply refer to as parliamentary democracy because of its often centralized nature. Because of their desire to eliminate the political elitism they see in capitalism, Marxists, Leninists and Trotskyists believe in direct democracy implemented through a system of communes (which are sometimes called soviets).This system ultimately manifests itself as council democracy and begins with workplace democracy. (See Democracy in Marxism) Democracy cannot consist solely of elections that are nearly always fictitious and managed by rich landowners and professional politicians. —Che Guevara,  Speech, Uruguay, 1961[64] [edit] Anarchist Anarchists are split in this domain, depending on whether they believe that a majority-rule is tyrannic or not. The only form of democracy considered acceptable to many anarchists is direct democracy.Pierre-Joseph Proudhon argued that the only acceptable form of direct democracy is one in which it is recognized that majority decisions are not binding on the minority, even when unanimous. [65] However, anar cho-communist Murray Bookchin criticized individualist anarchists for opposing democracy,[66] and says â€Å"majority rule† is consistent with anarchism. [67] Some anarcho-communists oppose the majoritarian nature of direct democracy, feeling that it can impede individual liberty and opt in favour of a non-majoritarian form of consensus democracy, similar to Proudhon's position on direct democracy. 68] Henry David Thoreau, who did not self-identify as an anarchist but argued for â€Å"a better government†[69] and is cited as an inspiration by some anarchists, argued that people should not be in the position of ruling others or being ruled when there is no consent. [edit] Demarchy Main article: Demarchy Sometimes called â€Å"democracy without elections†, demarchy uses sortition to choose decision makers via a random process. The intention is that those chosen will be representative of the opinions and interests of the people at large, and be more fair and impart ial than an elected official.The technique was in widespread use in Athenian Democracy and is still used in modern jury selection. [edit] Consensus Main article: Consensus democracy Consensus democracy requires varying degrees of consensus rather than just a mere democratic majority. It typically attempts to protect minority rights from domination by majority rule. [edit] Supranational Qualified majority voting is designed by the Treaty of Rome to be the principal method of reaching decisions in the European Council of Ministers. This system allocates votes to member states in part according to their population, but heavily weighted in favour of the smaller states.This might be seen as a form of representative democracy, but representatives to the Council might be appointed rather than directly elected. Some might consider the â€Å"individuals† being democratically represented to be states rather than people, as with many others. European Parliament members are democraticall y directly elected on the basis of universal suffrage, may be seen as an example of a supranational democratic institution. [edit] Non-governmental Aside from the public sphere, similar democratic principles and mechanisms of voting and representation have been used to govern other kinds of communities and organizations.Many non-governmental organizations decide policy and leadership by voting. Most trade unions and cooperatives are governed by democratic elections. Corporations are controlled by shareholders on the principle of one share, one vote. [edit] Theory A marble statue of Aristotle. [edit] Aristotle Aristotle contrasted rule by the many (democracy/polity), with rule by the few (oligarchy/aristocracy), and with rule by a single person (tyranny or today autocracy/monarchy). He also thought that there was a good and a bad variant of each system (he considered democracy to be the degenerate counterpart to polity). 70][71] For Aristotle the underlying principle of democracy is freedom, since only in a democracy the citizens can have a share in freedom. In essence, he argues that this is what every democracy should make its aim. There are two main aspects of freedom: being ruled and ruling in turn, since everyone is equal according to number, not merit, and to be able to live as one pleases. But one factor of liberty is to govern and be governed in turn; for the popular principle of justice is to have equality according to number, not worth, †¦.And one is for a man to live as he likes; for they say that this is the function of liberty, inasmuch as to live not as one likes is the life of a man that is a slave. —Aristotle,  Politics 1317b (Book 6, Part II) [edit] Rationale Among modern political theorists, there are three contending conceptions of the fundamental rationale for democracy: aggregative democracy, deliberative democracy, and radical democracy. [72] [edit] Aggregative The theory of aggregative democracy claims that the aim of the de mocratic processes is to solicit citizens’ preferences and aggregate them together to determine what social policies society should adopt.Therefore, proponents of this view hold that democratic participation should primarily focus on voting, where the policy with the most votes gets implemented. Different variants of aggregative democracy exist. Under minimalism, democracy is a system of government in which citizens give teams of political leaders the right to rule in periodic elections. According to this minimalist conception, citizens cannot and should not â€Å"rule† because, for example, on most issues, most of the time, they have no clear views or their views are not well-founded.Joseph Schumpeter articulated this view most famously in his book Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. [73] Contemporary proponents of minimalism include William H. Riker, Adam Przeworski, Richard Posner. According to the theory of direct democracy, on the other hand, citizens should vot e directly, not through their representatives, on legislative proposals. Proponents of direct democracy offer varied reasons to support this view. Political activity can be valuable in itself, it socializes and educates citizens, and popular participation can check powerful elites.Most importantly, citizens do not really rule themselves unless they directly decide laws and policies. Governments will tend to produce laws and policies that are close to the views of the median voter– with half to his left and the other half to his right. This is not actually a desirable outcome as it represents the action of self-interested and somewhat unaccountable political elites competing for votes. Anthony Downs suggests that ideological political parties are necessary to act as a mediating broker between individual and governments.Downs laid out this view in his 1957 book An Economic Theory of Democracy. [74] Robert A. Dahl argues that the fundamental democratic principle is that, when it comes to binding collective decisions, each person in a political community is entitled to have his/her interests be given equal consideration (not necessarily that all people are equally satisfied by the collective decision). He uses the term polyarchy to refer to societies in which there exists a certain set of institutions and procedures which are perceived as leading to such democracy.First and foremost among these institutions is the regular occurrence of free and open elections which are used to select representatives who then manage all or most of the public policy of the society. However, these polyarchic procedures may not create a full democracy if, for example, poverty prevents political participation. [75] Some[who? ] see a problem with the wealthy having more influence and therefore argue for reforms like campaign finance reform. Some[who? ] may see it as a problem that only voters decide policy, as opposed to a majority rule of the entire population.This can be used a s an argument for making political participation mandatory, like compulsory voting or for making it more patient (non-compulsory) by simply refusing power to the government until the full majority feels inclined to speak their minds. [edit] Deliberative Deliberative democracy is based on the notion that democracy is government by deliberation. Unlike aggregative democracy, deliberative democracy holds that, for a democratic decision to be legitimate, it must be preceded by authentic deliberation, not merely the aggregration of preferences that occurs in voting.Authentic deliberation is deliberation among decision-makers that is free from distortions of unequal political power, such as power a decision-maker obtained through economic wealth or the support of interest groups. [76][77][78] If the decision-makers cannot reach consensus after authentically deliberating on a proposal, then they vote on the proposal using a form of majority rule. [edit] Radical Radical democracy is based o n the idea that there are hierarchical and oppressive power relations that exist in society.Democracy's role is to make visible and challenge those relations by allowing for difference, dissent and antagonisms in decision making processes. [edit] Ideal forms [edit] Inclusive Main article: Inclusive Democracy Inclusive democracy is a political theory and political project that aims for direct democracy in all fields of social life: political democracy in the form of face-to-face assemblies which are confederated, economic democracy in a stateless, moneyless and marketless economy, democracy in the social realm, i. . self-management in places of work and education, and ecological democracy which aims to reintegrate society and nature. The theoretical project of inclusive democracy emerged from the work of political philosopher Takis Fotopoulos in â€Å"Towards An Inclusive Democracy† and was further developed in the journal Democracy & Nature and its successor The International Journal of Inclusive Democracy. The basic unit of decision making in an inclusive democracy is the demotic assembly, i. e. he assembly of demos, the citizen body in a given geographical area which may encompass a town and the surrounding villages, or even neighbourhoods of large cities. An inclusive democracy today can only take the form of a confederal democracy that is based on a network of administrative councils whose members or delegates are elected from popular face-to-face democratic assemblies in the various demoi. Thus, their role is purely administrative and practical, not one of policy-making like that of representatives in representative democracy.The citizen body is advised by experts but it is the citizen body which functions as the ultimate decision-taker . Authority can be delegated to a segment of the citizen body to carry out specific duties, for example to serve as members of popular courts, or of regional and confederal councils. Such delegation is made, in prin ciple, by lot, on a rotation basis, and is always recallable by the citizen body. Delegates to regional and confederal bodies should have specific mandates. [edit]

Friday, August 30, 2019

Meaning of Free-Enterprise System Essay

Free-enterprise is defined as the freedom of individuals or groups of individuals to engage in business ventures with the minimum intervention of the state (or its political apparatus, the government) (Smith 1776/1904). There are three parts in this definition. First, free-enterprise is defined as freedom of individuals; in classical economic theory, freedom to engage in economic activities is an extension of individual freedom. Added to that, this freedom to participate in economic activities is corollary to making personal choices, which unrestricted, constitute individual freedom (like other freedoms). The second part of this definition is the statement that individuals can engage in business ventures. This can be achieved so long as the individual has the capital to establish his business. In economic theory, capital is defined as the assets, in the form of money, technology, physical infrastructure, human skills, etc. that can have a possible rate of returns. Individuals can use this capital to accumulate wealth, that is, to create more capital and profit. Nevertheless, in a free-enterprise, capital however is dictated by the laws of supply and demand. Capital will only have a fruitful rate of return if it is utilized to producing goods demanded by the consumers. Capital utilized for producing products not demanded by the public will either have a lower rate of returns or push the business into exiting from the market. Lastly, the requisite for free-enterprise is what economists call â€Å"minimum intervention of the state. † In simple terms, in order for the laws of supply and demand to take effect, the government must not intervene in the economic activities of the country. The laws of supply and demand cannot work in a system wherein economic activities are either restricted or controlled by the state or government. Whenever the government restricts business activities, the natural mechanism of adjusting production and demand becomes blurred (policies), and thus may create an artificial shortage in the market. Added to that, Adam Smith (1776/1904) argued that if markets are left on its own, it will naturally supply the public its demand. The capitalists or businessmen, eyeing public demand as an opportunity for acquiring profit, utilize their capital for producing products that the public demands. The self-interests of both the businessmen and the consumers will naturally lead to prosperity. Smith (1776) noted however that the government’s roles in the free-market system are limited to the following: 1) military protection of the state, 2) creation of an amiable economic climate, and 3) construction of public works. However, in real life, it is impossible for government not to intervene in the market. Environmental disasters may create a shortage in the market, raising prices to multiple folds. The government then can institute some price mechanisms in order to protect the consuming public from unregulated and irresponsible business activities. Good and Bad Kinds of Markets in a Free-Enterprise System Because free-enterprise is defined as the freedom of individuals or group of individuals to engage in economic activities with the minimum intervention of the government or state, it is noteworthy that a loose classification of such had been made by different economists. These economists either favor a virtually unrestricted form of free-enterprise or a combination of command and free-market system. The first set of economists argued that free-enterprise system necessitates the establishment of an economy under perfect competition. These classical economists argued that if government will let the market do its natural function, relative adjustment in prices for certain products will cause a relative change in demand, and also a corresponding change in supply. In the supply side, because every firm in a perfectly competitive market has an equal share of market, a change in the price of one firm will cause a change in the price of other firms. In the end, the consuming public will benefit from this relationship because prices are well adjusted by market mechanisms. On the wage side, whenever a change in the production inputs occurs, a corresponding change in the wage side also occurs. Firms will adjust their wage schedules and a level of equilibrium is achieved which would benefit the general public. On the production side, classical economists argued that in a perfectly competitive market changes in prices of goods will have a corresponding change in the wage level; the price level described as flexible and the wage rate inflexible. Whenever a change in prices of goods occurs, all will follow, and thus the market will be in a state of equilibrium. In this condition, the supply and demand for goods are situated in one price (for a particular good). When equilibrium is reached in the market, both the aggregate demand and aggregate supply in the market becomes relatively equal. This will prevent the creation of an artificial shortage in the market. These conditions of free-enterprise however work in an ideal situation. In reality, the government can intervene in the market in at least three ways: 1) control the activities of monopolies and cartels, 2) set price controls for certain basic goods, and 3) control the supply of money. These functions may be classified as effective or necessary. It can be necessary because these activities and conditions will naturally affect the general welfare of the public. Effective because government interventions may take the form of a general welfare policy far removed from the rumblings of the political arena. Monopolies and cartels are perverted forms of the free-enterprise system. Monopolies usually control the larger portion of the market supply of a particular good. The implication is that these monopolies can dictate the price in the market at the expense of the general public. It is expected that the deadweight loss in this condition will be much larger than economies with imperfect market competition (economies differentiating products), precisely because the welfare surplus is converted into a certain rate of profit by the monopolies. They can do this by controlling the supply of goods in the market. Since they control most of the supply of a particular good, prices will be adjusted based on the profit schedule of the firm. Cartels function the same way as monopolies but differ in two ways. Monopolies usually involve one firm who controls most of the supply of a particular good in the market. Cartels are composed of firms producing the same product and have relatively equal share of the market pie of a particular good. These firms may corrode to control the price of a good in the market to achieve the expected level of profit, and of course to avoid competition. Welfare surplus in this case will still be large due to the corresponding fall of expected returns to the consumers. What I have outlined are the good and bad kinds of markets in a free-enterprise system. The perfectly competitive market is the ideal free-enterprise system. For theoretical purposes, the perfectly competitive market is itself the free-enterprise system since it well transcribes the characteristics of a laissez-faire system. However, because this is only an ideal type, perverted forms are well imbibed in the free-market system, that is, they are assumed to be part and parcel of this economic system. In a sense, the definition of free-enterprise that I presented is the definition that captures the postulates of classical economics. Classical economics classified good and bad forms of the so-called free-enterprise system, although it is wrong to argue that there is such thing as â€Å"bad free-enterprise† because theoretically it is an ideal type that strives for the good of the general public. This approach to the definition of a free-enterprise system is classical in nature and does not take into account some of the contemporary economic arrangements that are shaping the economies of many nations, poor and rich nations alike. Capitalism, Neo-Classical Economics, and Free-Enterprise In his book, Carson (2001) argued that the so-called free-enterprise system that classical economists are boasting is in fact transformed into the so-called capitalist system. The capitalist system provides the businessmen when the capacity of limiting the wages of the laborer. The state now, protects corporations (which are embodiments of the capitalist ordeals) through limited liability, laws on protection of assets, high interest rates, and of course low taxes. It seems that the free-enterprise system which was meant to be at the service of the general public is now an apparatus of the capitalists to expand their share of the market. Capitalism is not free-enterprise. Free-enterprise system is the contradiction of the capitalist system in its economic goals and assumptions. Keynes (1936) noted that in the era of modern economics, prices of goods in the market are inflexible in the short-run. Short-run adjustments of production schedules and wages will not be smooth since the overall inventory of the firm depends on the expected rate of demand of the public, the actual expenditure, and the price itself. The implication of this is the fact that free-enterprise can only be achieved partially in the long-run. In the short run, distortions in the market will create monopolies and cartels,; in the long-run these will be eliminated, thus the achievement of the so-called â€Å"free-enterprise† system.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Benjamin Franklin’s Satire

Benjamin Franklin, a prominent actor of the 18th century political scene and one of Founding Fathers of the United States. Owing to his diplomatic talents, Franklin represented the interests of the colony in the British Royal Court. His interests, however, were diverse and included literature as well as writing tracts and political articles.Being aware of the necessity of nurturing tolerance to and acceptance of individuals of different cultural backgrounds in the new independent state, Franklin created a number of satirical works, dedicated to multiculturalism. In order to support his general argument in favor of the diversity policy, the author uses numerous literary techniques, including comparison/contrast, characterization and tone, which the present paper is designed to analyze.â€Å"Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America† (1784) contain a number of instances of comparison and contrast, intended as the tools o f demonstrating that the culture of Native Americans is valuable equally to the colonists’ mode of life, in spite of the distinctions: â€Å"Savages we call them, because their Manners differ from ours, which we think the Perfection of Civility, they think the same of theirs† (Franklin, at http://www. mith2. umd. edu, 2005, par. 1). As one can interpret, the author observes that the so-called savages also have their own national and cultural dignity, despite the dissimilarity of their lifestyle.In addition, the scholar implies that the cultural patterns, learned early in the childhood, are actually used as most appropriate and suitable, regardless of the existing cultural context the person enters (Wright, 1990). It needs to be noted that the author wisely approaches to the comparison of cultures and mentions such dimensions (or criteria) as the views on governance, social life, ethics and morality as well as gender roles. Thus, discussing the two perspectives on governance, the author first and foremost claims that the political power in the Native society doesn’t have the apparatus of compulsion and law enforcement.Neither has it any units of punishment. Due to the fact that the author also observes that all members of these communities are perfectly knowledgeable about their roles, freedoms and responsibilities, such units appear needless, so the author implies his positive surprise with such a microcosm, as the 19th century American society was greatly dependent upon countless regulations and thus complicated in nature, whereas the Native Americans, as one can interpret the argument, construct no weighty superstructures and simplify their political life, which is, however, described as â€Å"democratic† (Lemay, 1986, p.91). For instance, everyone, with no exceptions, is allowed to participate in councils: â€Å"Having frequent occasions to hold public Councils, they have acquired great Order and Decency in conducting them. The old Men sit in the foremost Ranks, the warriors in t he next, and the Women and children in the hindmost† (Franklin, at http://www. mith2. umd. edu, 2005, par. 3). This strict order is never violated, as opposed to the atmosphere in the British House of Commons, in which â€Å"havoc and confusion† (Wright, 1990, p.264) often act as the major components. Furthermore, the savages, as the author observes, always manage to allocate time for both job and leisure and their spiritual development is therefore never-ending, whereas it is recognized that the American institutions are â€Å"slavish and base† (Franklin, at http://www. mith2. umd. edu, 2005, par. 3) in terms of the frames of the personal freedom and spare time. Thus, the society, depicted in the tract, has the advantage of the constant self-improvement, in contrast to New England.In his sense, the writer allows his contemporaries to look at the Native community from a different angle: they are not lazy or poorly civilized, but rather treasure the value of freed om and thus avoid any institutionalizations and bureaucracies (Lemay, 1986). The final key point of comparison is ethos and social norms of politeness in the groups of the â€Å"savages†. In fact, all of them are strictly organized and extremely polite in interpersonal, social and international relations: for instance, it is unacceptable to interrupt the speaker during meetings, so everyone keeps silence.On the contrary, in the House of Commons, â€Å"scarce a Day passes without some Confusion, that makes the speaker hoarse in calling to order† (Franklin, at http://www. mith2. umd. edu, 2005, par. 4). Furthermore, the â€Å"savages† are very patient to the other religions, conversely to New English missionaries, who persistently impose Christian beliefs upon the aboriginal communities. Thus, the author implies that instead of judging the ethics of the other culture, it is necessary to correct the imperfections in the existing norms in the â€Å"civilized† society.Characterization is used in order to increase the attractiveness of the Native culture or promote it to the reasonable degree. Notably, the most important terms of characterization are capitalized, so that it is clear which qualities are emphasized (Wright, 1990): â€Å"By this means they indeed avoid Disputes, but then it becomes difficult to know their Minds, or what Impression you make upon them† (Franklin, 2005, par. 4). Therefore, one can underline the following qualities of the indigenous individuals: patience, self-control and interest in common peace.The most prominent point of characterization, used by the author, it the enthusiastic and inspiring description of their hospitality and generosity. It is clear from the writing that they provide their guests with the best facilities available, moreover, their principles ban them from attacking guests unless they behave violently. In this sense, the author implies that the visitors, in turn, not always appreciate warm welcomes, referring probably to the first encounter between colonists and the Natives, celebrated nowadays as the Thanksgiving Day.Finally, the humorous tone of particular episodes determines the absurdity of the English educational and religious programs, â€Å"kindly offered† (Wright, 1990, p. 266) to the indigenous society. One of the stories, for instance, describe the uselessness of the enlightenment (in the Western understanding) of the Natives: â€Å"Several of our Young People were formerly brought up at the college of the Northern Provinces; they were instructed in all your sciences; but when they came back to us, they were bad runners, ignorant of every means of living in the Woods†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ( Franklin, 2005, par. 3).As one can understand, the efforts towards educating the Natives without teaching them the natural life skills appears ridiculous. Another interesting narrative depicts a Swedish Minister, who tries to address the Biblical legend about the Cre ation in his lecture, but the practical and level-headed Natives respond that Eve acted unreasonably when eating apples as she could have done cider of them. Thus, the Christian mission is also fallible, as the tribes have much older and more usable religious and spiritual doctrines, which have conditioned their survival in the wilderness and supported them in their daily routines.To sum up, the use of contrast and comparison, as one can conclude from the analysis, is determined by the author’s willingness to show that the conceptual paradigm of the Native society equally deserves its existence and recognition, instead of the â€Å"Savages† label. Characterization as a technique is employed in order to create a positive emotional impression of the indigenous community as a group of hospitable, tolerant and broad-minded people.Finally, episodes of particularly humorous tone are included so that the ineptitude of the government efforts towards â€Å"civilizing† th e tribes is emphasized. Works cited Franklin, B. â€Å"Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America†. 28 June 2005, Lemay, J. The Canon of Benjamin Franklin, 1722-1776: New Attributions and Reconsiderations. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1986. Wright, E. Benjamin Franklin: His Life as He Wrote It. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Mona Lisa`s Portrait Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Mona Lisa`s Portrait Analysis - Essay Example It is often assumed that standing in front of the portrait evokes senses that also create some sort of connection with the woman in the portrait. The whole idea of standing and appreciating the beauty of the portrait is quite fascinating and alluring in every sense considering its recognition as one of the highly admired piece of artwork in the world (Claire (1999) The portrait is a fine piece of work of one of the highly admired and well-respected artist of the world, Leonardo Da Vinci. His creativity and artistic touch earned him a place in millions of hearts across the world. It is assumed that Leonardo Da Vinci never completed his artworks and used to leave them unfinished. The portrait of Mona Lisa took four years of time to emerge as one of the highly intriguing portraits of all time. This piece of art was finished in the 15th century in France that also highlight the fact of the rise of art and creativity in different parts of the world. The portrait of Mona Lisa did not grab eyeballs till the 19th century when emerging symbolist movement began to recognize its worth, beauty and relevance. The appreciation level reached new heights attracting others to appreciate the work along with identifying wide arrays of stories pertaining to the woman’s face, landscape and the whole idea of portraying a woman showcasing enigmatic emotions. Analyzing the picture gives an idea that the whole ambiance of the portrait is quite unique and appealing in nature. The folded hands of the woman highlight her reserved posture while her eyes and lips speak unheard stories and emotions. The face and emotions welcome the viewer with a smile that is enigmatic in nature yet appealing and spellbinding. The corners of the mouth and eyes have been painted brightly that enhances the beauty of the portrait.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Management of Human Resources (MBA) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Management of Human Resources (MBA) - Essay Example Building rentals accounted for 1.8% of sales in the late 1970's. This was the lowest level for major discounters. Additional building rentals of Wal-Mart took it up by only 0.1%. Wal-Mart was able to keep it's cost of goods as low as possible. It had a centralized purchasing network, and therefore purchased in bulk. It also had distribution centers and a good distribution network that ensured it's stores always had a consistent supply of stock. These steps further reduced cost greatly. Wal-Mart had Goodwill in cities where it was established because of their promotional strategy which was tailored by it's philosophy of "Everyday low prices". It had a high sales turnover and spent just 1.1% of it's net sales in the second half of the 1970's. Costs were greatly reduced here too. Wal-Mart undertook capital investments to improve labor productivity. Salaries and wage expense had declined to 10.1% of sales by 1985. This reduced cost, however employee incentives, like profit sharing were enabled to ensure employee satisfaction. Their employees put in their best to satisfy Wal-Mart customers in return. Cost is minimized as much as possible, allowing for continuous reduction in prices of commodities. The reduction in prices led to increased sales and a high rate of turnover, hence increased profits and more operating income for expansion and performance. How does Wal-Mart have superior profitability Exhibit 2 (page 10) is a financial performance that compares Wal-Mart's performance with that of it's competitors from 1974 to1984 in (%) 2. Wal-Mart has superior profitability because of the high percentage of sales. It was very competitive in terms of prices, Wal-Mart was able to sell at very low prices governed by it's philosophy of "Everyday low prices". It ran a lot of promotional sales and was able to balance this with a low cost profile. Increased sales brought in more profit, Wal-Mart had the highest return on equity of 33.0%, sales growth of 40.3% and earnings per share growth of 38.8%. How do Wal-Mart's retail prices compare to those of it's competitors Wal-Mart was very competitive in terms of prices. The store managers had the liberty to set prices as compared to their counterparts that didn't have. This latitude in price setting enabled prices to be set uniquely to a particular location, while having the overall objective of the organization in mind. In a comparism by Sachs in late 1983 and early 1983 on a location

Landowner Responsibility in a Sharecropping Agreement Essay

Landowner Responsibility in a Sharecropping Agreement - Essay Example However, modern farming techniques, market forces, and variables that arise on an individual basis have added new dimensions to this age-old practice. Chemicals, fertilizers, pest control, and grain handling all need to be carefully considered. Who will stand the expense Who will maintain responsibility for management decisions For the landowner, these are important questions that need to be answered and agreed upon before entering into a 50/50 agreement with a tenant farmer. The primary responsibility of the landowner is to provide the land necessary to produce a crop. Cropsharing is used in the Midwest United States primarily for small grains such as corn and soybeans where the grains are rotated to maintain soil quality and reduce the threat of pests (Sadoulet, de Janvry and Fukui, 1997). In these cases, the landowner provides the land and the tenant provides the necessary equipment and labor needed to plant, care for, and properly maintain the fields of grain. Along with the land that the landowner provides, it is usually assumed that the owner has the responsibility to provide the tenant with unlimited access to the land as seen necessary by the tenant. The provision of the land, and access, is only the most basic responsibility that the landowner has. ... The most common complaint aired by landowners in a sharecropping arrangement is that the tenant does not involve the landowner in the ongoing process and fails to update the owner on the ongoing operation of the farm. Likewise, the major complaint from tenants is that the owner fails to involve themselves in the ongoing responsibility of making management decisions. The owner has the responsibility to himself, as well as the tenant farmer, to be pro-active in reaching out and continuing a dialogue. It is vital that the landowner spells out the exact terms and conditions of the agreement and attempt to foresee any problems or unexpected situations that may arise. The best and most binding agreements are done in writing. Although laws vary from state to state, oral agreements are usually only valid for a limited amount of time and often there is a conflict about what was originally said should a disagreement arise. Yet, with all the vulnerabilities that an oral agreement subjects the landowner to, a recent study at the University of Missouri showed that fewer than 35% of all sharecropping agreements are done in writing (Sadoulet et al., 1997). In a setting where trust has always been held in high esteem, it is sometimes awkward to initiate a written agreement. Landowners who are used to doing a deal on no more than a handshake should carefully consider all aspects of their responsibility and assure that it is fully understood by the tenant farmer. One aspect of the agreement is the responsibility for fertilizing the crop. In today's market, some farmers believe their land is more valuable than the machinery and labor provided by the tenant and insist on a yield ratio higher than 50/50. The landowner may be tempted to shift some of the operation's expenses to

Monday, August 26, 2019

CIPD- PDP Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

CIPD- PDP - Essay Example As a result of frequent discussion, reading and research, I was able to gain a broad understanding of the major concepts and theories of human resource management. The second aspect of the development plan was to develop leadership skills by participating actively in skill development sessions on various topics such as employee engagement in strategic decision making and career planning. These development sessions allowed me to practice my speaking and communication skills. Contrary to my expectations, I discovered that I lacked the required level of assertiveness and persuasiveness in my communication style. On the other hand, I was able to come across as a good listener capable of demonstrating high empathy levels. I realized that I could use this as my strength in situations such as employee counselling, grievance situations, interviewing job candidates, and so on. However, I need to develop my assertiveness and persuasiveness without which I may not become a successful leader in my organization. The CIPD (2014) requirements for associate members state that competence in interpersonal and technical skills is essential. Hence, this aspect of the development plan was not met to the desired levels. The third aspect of the development plan was to develop self-consistency in the practice and application of HR practices and policies in the organizational setting. The aim was to improve my concentration and attention levels by immersing myself in actual settings. I took an internship as an HR practitioner in various departments of the organization. During my internship I learnt the functions of sourcing, recruitment, reward management and organizational development and their interaction with other functions of HR. This was the most interesting experience of following the development plan as I got the opportunity to interact with professionals and learn from experience. I sharpened several professional skills such as

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Financial analysis Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Financial analysis - Assignment Example The steel company will have the lowest because steel production is very asset intensive, meaning the company will have to invest billions in equipment, plants, and property required for steel manufacturing. Additionally, equipment used will have a long lifetime. As a result of this high investment and its long lifetime, the sales for a steel company will be relatively low, leading to low asset turnover (Rodgers 23). While supermarkets have low sales margins, pharmaceutical companies, jewelry retailers, and software companies have high sales margins. Supermarkets have low sales margins because of the high intensity of competition in the sector. In addition, there is minimal product differentiation because they mainly carry similar brands. Consumers also have a high sensitivity to price changes and switch costs tend to be low. As a result, competition in the sector is mainly based on pricing, which results in extremely low margins (Rodgers 48). On the other hand, software companies have the highest sales margins because consumer-switching costs are high, while production costs tend to be relatively low. Finally, most costs for initial development of software are previously expensed. Thus, the sales margins are higher than for the rest. I disagree with James Broker’s assessment. While earning numbers and operating cash flow are essential in the evaluation of a company’s prospects, they will differ because of long and short-term accruals. Some current accruals like credit sales lead to higher earnings than operating cash flows. On the other hand, other current accruals like unpaid expenses result in lower earnings than operating cash-flows. Non-current accruals like deferred taxes and depreciation also result in differences between operating cash-flows and earnings. Understanding the difference between earnings and operating cash-flows, in this case, is more important than the fact that earnings are higher than

Saturday, August 24, 2019

The dysfunctional family dynamics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5500 words

The dysfunctional family dynamics - Essay Example Tom’s authoritarian methodology of controlling his wife and children is akin to a command-and-conquer mentality much like that of a militant. His psychological maladjustment appears to be a direct result of self-esteem depletion that provides the foundation for his deviant and abusive behaviours. Tom’s inefficiency in farming does not provide adequate income or sustenance to the household which exacerbates the problem in their marriage and the rituals that occur in the family dynamic. Carrie maintains an uninvolved parenting style which is borne of her growing depression and anxiety caused by Tom, her miscarriages, and the financial situation that drives the current family dynamics. In relation to family dynamics and roles, in most well-adjusted households, children learn about appropriate behaviours through social role modelling under social learning theory. This states that children will learn from adult role models based on what is punished and what brings punishment (Neubert, Carlson, Kacmar, Roberts & Chonko, 2009). However, in order for this learning to be adopted, the role model must be a credible and attractive person in the eyes of the child (Neubert, et al.). This is compelling support for why each of the children maintain a unique method of coping with the abuse behaviours that they experience or witness vicariously as it is directed at Carrie. Tom does not represent a worthwhile role model and, due to the father’s controlling methodology and distorted values on autonomy, the children have a distant and uninvolved relationship with both parents. Tom’s refusal to allow the children to socialise with neighbours or school peers continue to degrade healthy adjustment, especially in the older children. â€Å"Peer acceptance and friendships are distinct constructs and contribute positively to youth development† (Brown & Lohr, 1987, p.48). Under Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and personality development, in ord er to find higher concepts for healthy adult adjustment, a sense of belonging needs to be established in the family or social environment (Gambrel & Cianci, 2003). Individuals in society need to feel that they have a certain level of control over their circumstances and receive recognition from others in order to build self-confidence (Gambrel & Cianci, 2003). Tom contributes highly to the depletion of self-confidence by removing elements of autonomous living and decision-making from both Carrie and the children. He serves as a catalyst for maladjusted youth behaviours and personality, such as that of Fiona who simply deserted the family in favour of receipt of these more important affiliation and belonging needs. A non-affiliatory environment dictates the level of relationship between family members and is borne of passive and uninvolved parenting style. Tom: Tom appears to have a low locus of control, which under this theory is a person’s belief that external parties have c ontrol over their destiny (Treven & Potocan, 2005). A more healthy and adjusted adult tends to have a higher locus of control, believing that through perseverance and internal motivations that their own destiny is controllable and manageable without blaming the external world. Tom exerts these characteristics of having a low locus of control with his animosity against those who hold college degrees (since he did not complete higher education) and with his admonishment of neighbours as being nosey or without value. Tom is using inferior coping mechanisms and defence mechanisms common to those with distorted perceptions of the world that directly impacts the family unit and individual mental health. Violence and Children: Violence

Friday, August 23, 2019

Case study 11 Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

11 - Case Study Example Janice should consider getting support from the hotel’s executives through Tony for her group business. In addition, Janice should focus HR practices to increase collaboration amongst group members and their superiors or supervisors. The best way to deal with group businesses is to employ HR strategies. Thirdly, Janice can use heritage relationships to form and organize these groups. Janice should first find out existing trends in the lodging sector. Second, Janice should determine the most promising domestic and visit trends. Third, Janice should find out The Christopher Hotel’s rivals and their success so far. The fourth step is finding out the likely accommodation market sectors in the region. Lastly, Janice can find out the residence and average room rate that a new property at can accomplish. Janice can simply find out what the competition is up to by visiting their website and associate blogs or social media accounts. If the competition has not posted the specifics and time of these activities on these sites, Janice can attend a conference held by competition and pick up news about their events and successes. Other ways for finding out the operations and timing of the competition is compiling a report, enrolling their suppliers, or even employing

Thursday, August 22, 2019

“Successful African-American mathematics students” Essay Example for Free

â€Å"Successful African-American mathematics students† Essay â€Å"Successful African-American Mathematics Students in Academically Unacceptable High Schools† is author Peter A. Sheppard IV’s dissertation for his Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Science and Mathematics Education. And although there have been numerous studies already conducted on successful African-Americans, as revealed by Sheppard’s Review of Literature, not much has been made regarding the accountability aspect of the No Child Left behind Act (NCLB) 2001 (where states are required to publicly identify low-performing schools) and its influence on students. Hence, Sheppard sought to explore the relation between academically unacceptable schools – which, as defined by the NCLB 2001, refer to schools that got a School Performance Score of 44. 9 or below – and the existence of quite a number of African-American math students in such seemingly negatively labeled academic institutions. Completed on May 2005, Sheppard’s article posed two primary and four secondary research questions. The main questions that the study aimed to address are: 1) Why are successful African-American mathematics students (with â€Å"successful student† defined as someone who scored ‘Advanced’ or ‘Mastery’ on the math portion of Louisiana’s Graduate Exit Exam or GEE) able to thrive in academically unacceptable schools? 2) Why have these successful African-American math students chosen to stay in academically unacceptable schools despite being given an option to transfer to a better-performing school? In an attempt to answer the above questions, Sheppard (2005) also hopes to stumble upon answers to the following sub-questions: 1) Is the negative school designation, academically unacceptable, an appropriate description of the schools in this study? 2) What is the role of the teacher in the achievement of successful math students in state-recognized poor schools? 3) What is the role of the school-based leader (principal) in the achievement of successful math students in state-recognized poor schools? 4) To what extent do peers affect the achievement of successful math students in state-recognized poor schools? Sheppard made it clear that his paper was in no way an attempt to generalize the situation of all African-American students in all academically unacceptable schools. In fact, the answers he’ll be deriving at will be applicable only to â€Å"a small non-probability, purposeful sample† that is limited to the eleven successful African-American math students who studied in either Lake High School or River High School and who participated in the study (Sheppard, 2005). It is for this reason that Sheppard approached his study with a qualitative design. Since Sheppard was attacking his research qualitatively, the theoretical construct used is not that well-defined. The use of a theory in a qualitative study is, after all, not as clear as its use in quantitative researches. John Creswell (1994) explains, â€Å"In a qualitative study, one does not begin with a theory to test or verify. Instead, consistent with the inductive model of thinking, a theory may emerge during the data collection and analysis phase of the research†¦. † But even with an undefined theoretical construct, it may be safe to assume that Sheppard was proceeding with the research under the same theoretical constructs that other researchers mentioned in the Review of Literature were using: that despite an â€Å"ominous set of troubling conditions† provided by family life, peers, society, and – as applicable with the study at hand – a negative label on the schools they attend, African-Americans are able to overcome the challenges and become academically successful thanks to â€Å"support from teachers, parental academic engagement, self-discipline, self efficacy, and positive peer influence† (Sheppard, 2005). To arrive at a conclusion, Sheppard attempted to answer his research questions via what he called data triangulation, where he â€Å"[brings] more than one source of data to bear a single point†. And his sources of data were tape-recorded interviews with the 11 successful African-American students and principals and math teachers from the two participant schools plus a 10-item open-ended survey that the 11 students had to complete. Conducting tape-recorded interviews indeed worked to Sheppard’s advantage as it allowed him to keep the original data and â€Å"preserve the words of the respondents† (Sheppard, 2005). Conducting one hour semi-structured interviews with each of the principals and teachers allowed Sheppard to make use of one of the advantages of the said data collection type, which is that it gave him control over the line of questioning (Creswell, 1994). Same thing goes with his interviews with the students. However, the interview with the students posed one limitation: since they were conducted in a group setting, the presence of other interviewees may have biased the responses. In fact, it should be noted that 5 of the 11 students interviewed were either reserved or brief in responding. Sheppard did use another data collection type to verify the students’ answers during the group interviews. But for a study that is openly outlined as qualitative in nature – Sheppard himself wrote so a couple of times throughout the paper – it was surprising that the second method used was the open-ended survey. It is a common fact that survey – open- or close-ended – is a method associated with the qualitative procedure (Burns and Bush, 2005; Creswell, 1994; Qualitative research). I believe that it would have been wiser for Sheppard to have stuck with the methods he applied during his pilot study, which were group and individual interviews. This is not only to make sure that he stays parallel with a qualitative design but also because a face-to-face interview achieves something that a written survey can never hope to do so – and that is allowing the researcher room to ask for additional information (Burns and Bush, 2005). Surveys, even those with open-ended questions, allows for respondents to provide incomplete answers that a researcher will have a hard time clarifying; with face-to-face interviews, though, it will be easy for the interviewer to throw in a follow-up question and let the respondent elaborate on his/her answers (Burns and Bush, 2005; Creswell, 1994). Besides, the methods in the pilot study has already proven successful as two of the participants who were reluctant during the group interviews answered more openly during the individual session, thus making the group-individual interviews seem like a smarter path to tread. It is also worth noting that the use of open-ended and semi-structured questionnaires was indeed a good move on Sheppard’s part because it allowed him to collect information in the participants’ own words and these kinds of questionnaires elicit complete answers (it is just up to Sheppard to probe further). And although the information collection with these types of questionnaires are difficult to code and interpret (Burns and Bush, 2005), Sheppard was able to go about it with member checking, where he asked the participants to review and edit the transcripts. Sheppard’s methodology was, arguably, effective in arriving at a satisfactory conclusion. But in my honest opinion, there would have been a better way of approaching the research to ensure that the result he’d arrive at will be more ‘trustworthy’. But his study, â€Å"Successful African-American Mathematics Students in Academically Unacceptable High Schools†, although not applying a methodology I would personally have preferred is indeed a good starting to point to further exploring relationships between successful African-American math students and academically unacceptable high schools. REFERENCES Boeree, C. George. (1998). Being Aware Of Your Biases. Qualitative Methods Workbook. Retrieved August 23, 2007, from http://webspace. ship. edu/cgboer/qualmethfour. html. Burns, Alvin and Ronald Bush. (2005). Marketing Research (5th ed). Europe: Pearson Education. Creswell, John W. (1994). Research Design: Qualitative Quantitative Approaches. California: Sage Publications. Northern Arizona University. (1999). Interviewing in Qualitative Research. Qualitative Research. Retrieved August 23, 2007, from http://jan. ucc. nau. edu/~mid/edr725/class/interviewing/. Qualitative research. (2007, August 19). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved August 23, 2007, from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Qualitative_research. Quantitative research. (2007, July 25). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved August 23, 2007, from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Quantitative_research. Sheppard, Peter IV. (2005 May). Successful African-American Mathematics Students in Academically Unacceptable High Schools [Electronic version]. ERIC. Retrieved August 23, 2007, from http://www. eric. ed. gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet? accno=ED489992.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Analyse the Pay Tv Market in Sa Using the Five Forces Framework Essay Example for Free

Analyse the Pay Tv Market in Sa Using the Five Forces Framework Essay The threat of new entrants in the South African Pay TV market is low for reasons discussed below: Capital Requirements: The case study clearly states that Top TV spent in the region of R1 billion to become operational which shows that the capital needed to do business in this industry is steep. The case also highlight other licensees such as WOWtv and Telkom Media (later sold to become Super 5 Media) struggling to launch and pay debts respectively. Further proving that the capital needed to operate in this environment is very huge requiring investors with a strong financial muscle. Product Differentiation: There is brand identification and loyalty to DStv for the simple reason that it has been the only player (monopoly) in this industry for more than 15 years and has built huge fences around it to couple brand loyalty by entering into long exclusive deals with some of the biggest channels and studios in the US. Cost Disadvantages: DStv has benefitted from the learning and experience curve and being that it has been the only player in the market for a long time it has exploited this by entering into long exclusive deals, putting proper technology infrastructure to avoid technical glitches that for instance Top TV experienced. These cost advantages positions DStv well ahead of new entrants or discourages new entrants. The threat of new entrants is also low because of the fighting muscle DStv has in fighting off new entrants as it demonstrated to Top TV, by coming up with a new range of packages that also targeted the lower LSM groups which Top TV had targeted. This repositioning of DStv had huge repel effects on Top TV to a point that Top TV is fighting to stay in business. Last but not least DStv has gained economies of scale in research, marketing and financing over the years they have been operating as a monopoly.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Literature On Solid Waste Management In Nigeria Environmental Sciences Essay

Literature On Solid Waste Management In Nigeria Environmental Sciences Essay Research both past and present into solid waste in Nigeria like most developing countries with an absence of adequate solid waste management system has been focused more on adequate collection and disposal options than on the waste generators, storage or even an avenue for waste reduction which aids in reuse and recycling, hence creating major gaps. These gaps are areas that need to address to ensure that there is a sustainable management of solid waste generated to prevent environmental hazards. 2.1.1 Purpose of the Literature Review This chapter review gives an overview of the situation of solid waste management in developing countries critically examining and summarising studies by various researchers in academic books, professional and academic journals, published and unpublished works and electronic media. This literature review would aid in identifying appropriate methodology to achieve the aim of this research. In addition, source separation a relatively understudied concept has been identified and recommended by many researchers as an avenue for waste reduction. It has also been suggested as providing alternative means of practicing proper waste management apart from collection and disposal. (Cointreau-Levine Gopalan, 2000:Imam et al, 2008) This study into institutional solid waste management with the aim of identifying dynamics that influence/affect separation at source at households in the campus will create a means of addressing waste reduction and proper implementation of solid waste management options. According to UNEP (2005), the logical starting point for the proper management of solid waste is to reduce the amounts of waste managed, either informally within the generators site or formally (externally) by another entity once the waste is discarded by the generator. Thereby reducing waste quantities collected or otherwise managed. 2.1.2 Literature Search The search for literature can be very time consuming and futile if proper strategies are not developed. To aid in the literature search, the following was prepared: Firstly, the topic, boundary (Developing countries: Nigeria) and problem statement was agreed on. Then I identified of the disciplines with a stake in solid waste. They include: Health, Science and Technology Waste Waste Management Environmental Urban Secondly, Keywords broad and narrow were developed. They are: Municipal Solid waste , Solid waste Management Institutional Solid Waste Separation at source , Source separation Waste segregation, separation Household solid waste manag* Participation/Incentives in solid waste Motivating factors, attitudinal behaviours Solid waste management in Nigeria University of Benin To this end, the author sought the advice of the WEDC resource centre manager. She showed me books and journals on solid waste (management) but told me that most of the journals were available online for latest on any research and my search will be more extensive using the internet. She also recommended the use of Loughborough University, search engine Metalib, for searching and interrogation of the various databases for articles and journals on the subject matter (Science direct, CSA illumina) Following her recommendation and my initial write up, a data interrogation search was done using Metalib on the following database using the keywords above, either truncated, with * or adding two keyword together using the OR because the AND was giving irrelevant data . Environmental Sciences and Pollution management Abstracts (CSA Illumina) Aqualine (CSA Illumina) Science Direct From this site, the following journals were found with relevant data. Waste Management Waste Management and Research Habitat International Environmental Management Resource, Conservation and Recycling Google Search Engine and Goggle Scholar were searched using the keywords above. The sources of information obtained include: More Journals articles from the above stated journals Solid waste Management Volume 1:United Nation Environmental Programme (UNEP) J.C Agunwanba:(Google scholar) with articles on Waste management in some parts of Nigeria The World Bank; Urban Solid Waste management (community initiatives) WEDC WELL factsheets and studies: solid waste management I chose this approach to ensure an extensive and appropriate search in all areas of solid waste management and Research into developing countries of which Nigeria is apart. My use of the Internet was to ensure that as many recent journals, conferences and researches in Nigeria are available for scrutiny. This systematic review will initially focus on identifying waste characteristics and components, then the roles and involvement of the different stakeholders, their attitudes and perspectives towards waste and finally the different concepts of source separation as it is practiced. This would help in analyzing and recognizing the past and present problems and solutions in cities and universities in developing countries especially Nigeria. The summary section would scrutinize the methodologies used in the above reviewed literature and its adaptation for use in this research. Also included are the main findings from the reviewed literature and the gaps in knowledge this research aims to address. 2.2 Solid waste management practices in Developing countries. In an attempt to accelerate the pace of its industrial development, an economically developing nation may fail to pay adequate attention to solid waste management. Such a failure incurs a severe penalty later in the form of reusable resources needlessly lost and a staggering adverse impact on the environment and on public health and safety.(UNEP, 2005) This is the problem presently facing most developing countries: rapid population growth due to rapid urban development hence more waste to manage. (Singhal Pandey, 2001) 2.2.1 Waste Generation and Composition The saying goes that if you can measure it you can manage it this is a viewpoint that is especially important and a solution that most developing countries have not been able to accomplish in solid waste management. There is no measure of the waste generated and so management becomes difficult and inefficient. According to( Vaughan , 1971), information on the composition and quantity of solid waste is indispensable to design, implementation and operation of any solid waste management system of today and helps to forecast the requirements of tomorrow. As stated above most developing countries are plagued with solid waste management problems that are degrading the urban environment and posing a serious threat to the natural resources and consequently holding back development (Sujauddin.,M., et al 2008) solving this problem will require knowledge about the per capital waste generated, composition and also attitudes towards waste. The authors found that there are many variables that affect the composition and the quantities of waste generated this include population growth, the socioeconomic factors (income, education, age, land ownership) which is the reverse for most developed countries. The major constituents of developing countries waste is about 66% organic, which is about 30% of the total waste generated showing that composting, would be a very good way of waste management (recycling). (ibid) 2.2.2 Institutional Arrangement The key institutions responsible for solid waste management services include public sector, formal private sector, informal private sector and community based non-governmental organisations. (ABC, 1988) The proper identification of their roles and responsibilities has been cited as a major influence in a sustainable solid waste management. At present, the public sector is responsible for service delivery of solid waste management in most developing countries and they are finding it difficult due to the rapid explosion in population growth hence more waste to manage. Some major problems that affect the municipalities inadequacy to provide good solid waste system include poor planning, lack of experienced staff, inappropriate equipments and technology, insufficient funds and landfill sites for disposal.( Coad, 2005: Hossain Siwar 2002). Collection, transportation and disposal have been a major problem in delivering efficient solid waste management services. In India cities collection efficiency is between 40 -70 % due to inadequate transport capacity and deficient workforce even with the municipalities allocation of 85-90% of the total budget to the service (Nema, 2004: Sharholy et al 2008) To rectify this inadequacy and provide better services some sources have recommended institutional changes like privatization transferring of the responsibilities to private sector while the public sector deals with policies and regulations (Hossain Siwar, 2002: Cointreau-Levine et al, 2000: World Bank,2003). The authors have argued that privatization will reduce the burden on government, increase the efficiency and effectiveness of municipal solid waste (MSW) services, decreases costs, source reduction and improve recycling thereby reducing the waste that goes for final disposal and increasing the life cycle of disposal sites. They also state that this can only work with sustainable frameworks supported by viable government policies and regulations. Poor solid waste management creates serious threat to human health and well-being especially with indiscriminate open dumping which clogs drains and sewerage creating breeding grounds for rodents and insects leading to disease spread and ground water contamination.( Majani,2000:Gonzenbach. Coad, 2007: Kumar et al, 2009) To aid in proper solid waste management certain cities have set rules (Bennagen et al ,2002: Sarkhel Banerjee, 2009) to necessitate the mandatory segregation of waste at generators level and also the concordance between collection and disposal facilities to ensure the establishment of local recycling and composting plants. The study showed that households were ready to participate and their participation would increase if there was going to be regular collection, variable user charges and appropriate garbage collection i.e. not collecting both recyclables and other waste in the same vehicle. (Bennagen et al., 2002) Informal Sector The role of the informal sector (waste pickers, scavengers, sweepers) in solid waste management is identified as been crucial in waste reduction though to what amount it cannot be effectively determined.(Wilson et al , 2006). Most of their activities are driven by the need to supplement income and to reduce poverty. They operate at all levels in the solid waste chain from generation to disposal removing the recyclables and trading it. These waste pickers with organisation and support would create jobs for the minority in the society, reduce poverty, save municipalities money, improve industrial competitiveness, conserve natural resources and protect the environment. The government in many developing countries: Argentina, Brazil, India, Uruguay, Colombia, Mexico have identified the necessities of recognising and identifying this stakeholders especially in light of attaining Goal 7 of the millennium development goals thereby creating an inclusive, socially desirable, economically viabl e and environmentally sound solid waste management system. Waste pickers activities are recognised for their role in reducing the waste to be collected transported and disposed e.g. Jakarta 25% reduction. (Medina, 2008) 2.2.3 Attitudes and Preferences Attitude is termed in this study as the feeling and thoughts while perception is insight and awareness which encourages participation. To ensure the sustainability of any SWM system there has to be a change of government perception to that of recognising the importance of people. The current global challenges of urban solid waste (Ali, 2006(Ed)) states demand a people centred approach, change in public attitude to consumption and increased relationship between the people and the government. With new approaches to waste management to tackle the challenges of the increased waste generated by the population, increased cost of waste management leads to increase user charges. This (ibid) stated will only be sustainable if the government recognises the importance of people in planning, designing and operating any solid waste system. Bisson (2002) stated that since waste is a product of human behaviour, to maintain a good waste management we need information on the behaviour and attitude of people with regard to waste and accurate data on waste generation Source separation and other recycling practices at households is greatly supported in its role to reduction of waste, municipality costs but in practice might not be successful because of the understanding of funds and the workload involved. (Chung S.S C.S Poon, 1996: Ghorbani et al, 2007). The authors concluded that economic incentives as well as education about environmental benefits of waste separation by householders would result in active participation of people in separating wastes in the home. Chung S.S C.S Poon (1996) further found that consumption rate might increase if waste is recycled hence education awareness programs. They suggested that the involvement of all household members and not only the housewives, binary not multiple separation schemes will further increase its success rate. One likely consequence of households paying close attention to their refuse is that people will become more aware of the waste they generate and will become less wasteful thus saving resources and further reducing collection costs. (Kassim, 2006) Various authors (Bennagen., June 2002: Sujauddin.,M., et al 2008) have reported that there is an eagerness for communities to participate in solid waste management schemes, pay for services but the payment should not be unit but as per user and with government support. 2.2.4 Source Separation Source separation according to GDRC (n.d) is the setting aside of compostable and recyclable materials from the waste stream before they are collected with other MSW, to facilitate reuse, recycling, and composting. During the UN conference in Johannesburg in 2002 reduction of waste through source separation was affirmed as one of the steps, which the local government can implement to maximize environmental sound waste use, recycling and diversion of useful materials from the waste stream. Facing the problems of solid waste management, (Strange, K 2002: UNEP, 2005) argues can be done through plans and programs which encourage source separation and this he stated will help in minimising waste for disposal. Schà ¼beler et al (1996) further added that the introduction of source separation ought to be in a pragmatic and incremental manner beginning with pilot activities to access and encourage the interest and willingness of users to participate. In most developing countries, the practice of source separation is by the informal sector at a very small scale. In cities of developing countries, source separation provides a means of employment, reduces the total amount of waste for disposal, and at landfills through the support of governing bodies and community based organisation (Lardinios Furedy, 1999: Fehr et al, 2009) Waste separation increases the quality of produced compost and recyclables, and optimizes incineration. It also enables better financing of waste management activities and minimizes the energy and labour inputs to any downstream processes (Murray, 1999). Source-separation pilot programs have been tested in some developing countries but total recovery of recyclables have been hindered due to the large amount of water contents in the waste and high percentage of food waste food waste (Zhuang et al,2007: Tadesse., 2008), The motivations for materials separation and reuse in developing countries include: scarcity or expense of virgin materials; the level of absolute poverty; income supplement, the frugal values of even relatively well-to-do households; and the large markets for used goods and products made from recycled plastics and metals. (UNEP, 2005: Sarkhel Banerjee, 2009: Fehr et al, 2009) Fehr et al (2009) further recommended the introduction of legal instruments within a municipal model that mandate source separation and encourages educational and legal measures for solid waste management success. (Joseph, 2006; Zhuang et al, 2007: Fehr et al, 2009 agree that any source separation program needs people centred participation, monitoring, awareness creation and support. Below are some of the advantages of source separated over co-mingled waste Table 1 Separate/mixed collection Separate Collection Mixed Collection Extends landfill life. Removes potential recyclables from the waste stream. Lowers net disposal costs. Done by the household. No extra cost for the community. Highly applicable to residential waste. Industrial waste may be recycled through industrial waste exchanges. An effective and reliable tool for recycling. Can be implemented on small-scale, then expanded. Recyclables are usually uncontaminated by garbage and other debris It is not time or space consuming for the residents. The facility does not need additional space to handle recyclables. Basic technology is needed The effectiveness of the collection system does not depend on how people prepare recyclables. There is no need for established secondary markets Guidelines for Municipal Solid Waste Management in the Mediterranean Region ( ) 2.2.5 Solid waste practices in universities of developing countries Higher institutions have the responsibility of having high moral and ethical obligation to the environment because they are expected to produce leaders in environmental protection movement. Armijo de Vega (2008) research acknowledges the good use of campuses as a case study for solid waste management (SWM) options for the following reasons; Not much has not been reported on the topic, They been independent to a great extent, campuses can accommodate pioneering SWM approaches that can filter down to other communities later, Thirdly, since it involves students at various levels it can serve to sensitize as well as easily train them in good SWM practices, and Finally, SWM practices adopted by higher education institutions have a great potential of being adopted by surrounding communities because these institutions generally are held in high esteem. The efforts towards responsible waste management should stem from these institutions. Besides, appropriate waste management would bring benefits to the institution such as a reduction of the financial resources destined to waste management, but, above all, it would set an example to the students and the community. (Mbuligwe .2002: Maldonado, 2006) Furthermore the authors discovered that the type of waste generated on campus (recyclables and organic) provides a lot of avenue for reuse, recycling and recovery thereby reducing the quantity of waste disposed in landfill by more than 60%.(ibid) 2.3 Solid waste management Practices in Nigeria 2.3.1 Waste Composition Nigeria is a nation that exemplifies chronic solid waste management problems in conjunction with population growth. It is the most populous country in Africa, with over 120 million residents (World Bank 1996), and over the past 50 years, has had the third largest urban growth rate in the world at 5.51% annually (UNWUP 1999). In Nigeria though there has been some studies into the determination of waste composition and generation to enhance the provision of solid waste management services, this studies are outdated (Adedibu 1985) or have been done at the landfills (Mbuligwe., 2002). This does not take into consideration the quantities of waste that are separated by the waste pickers and animals before collection. (Ogwueleka, 2009: Iman et al 2008 ) agree that indistinctive legislative policies and regulation, lack of data on the generated waste, inappropriate technology for collection and disposal, no planned framework and inadequate population characteristics are some of the factors affecting the knowledge of municipal solid waste composition in Nigeria to develop better disposal methods. Other factors include political, economic and social. The majority of substances composing municipal solid waste include paper, vegetable matter, plastics, metals, textile, rubber and glass (Ogwueleka, 2009:Imam., 2008). They found that the major component of solid waste is organic waste (40-64%) which is wetter, corrosive with high density (Ogwueleka, 2009)and agree that composting will be an adequate solid waste practice to reduce the waste especially (Iman et al 2008) with the removal of government subsidies for the sale of fertilizers creating a market for it. Controlled landfill (Adedibu, 1985) stated is another SWM option for disposal. This is not recommendable because of the complex technology and funds which the government cannot provide. Efficient recycling and composting could save 18.6% in waste management costs and 57.7% in landfill cost (Agunwamba, 1998). Waste characteristics vary according to season, population, climate, and industrial production, the size of markets for waste materials and the extent of urbanization, effectiveness of recycling, and work reduction. (Ogwueleka, 2009). Other factors affecting increased waste generation among residents in Nigeria cities are change in social economic and educational circumstance. 2.3.2 Attitudes and Perceptions According to (Agunwamba, 2003: Iman et al 2008) public awareness, social ideals, beliefs and attitudes to waste can affect all stages in the solid waste management process. This has an impact on household waste storage, waste segregation, recycling, collection frequency, littering and fly-tipping (illegal dumping), willingness to pay for waste management services, and the level and type of opposition to waste treatment and disposal facilities. In Nigeria, the general public attitude towards waste management is poor. . A man may live in a neatly kept house but refuse to cooperate with his fellow residents in keeping the surroundings of the building clean. As long as the waste materials are not inside his house, he feels no concern. Government attitude towards solid waste management is the introduction of in appropriate technology without the consultation of the people using the services (Agunwamba, 1998). In addition, they consider the informal sector a menace (Ogwueleka, 2009) and try all means to eradicate them. Most Nigerians associated wealth with lavish spending, which generates much waste as a by-product. They perceive waste pickers/workers as poor and so make little or no effort to cooperate in waste management activities. Similarly, in homes waste removal to bins classified as childrens work. Since the bins were not designed with, their small stature wastes are dumped on the ground, creating more work for the waste workers and increasing collection time reducing efficiency. (ibid) As for the waste workers, poor remuneration and stagnation in promotion has created a reduced interest in proper solid waste management. They go about doing their jobs haphazardly. The poor attitude to waste been exhibited can be changed with proper enlightenment programs and patient extension efforts that are reinforced continuously even after project completion. This will negate ignorance, materialistic tendencies, and apathy and reinforce their responsibility to the environmental. (Agunwamba, 1998) 2.3.3 Institutional Arrangement With knowledge of the illegal dumping of toxic waste in June 1988, (Adegoroye., 1994) the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) was created. The landmark Federal legislation on environmental protection in Nigeria was the decree Number 58 of 1988, which established the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA). The specific role of FEPA with respect to solid waste management is to (Onibokun, 1999): Study the most reliable systems that are appropriate for local, domestic and industrial wastes. Specify waste disposal and treatment methods that take into consideration the geological and environmental setting and encourage recycling. Specify waste disposal sites that guarantee the safety of surface and underground water systems. Set up and enforce standards for adequate sanitary facilities for the disposal of human and other solid wastes in dwellings, housing estates and public facilities in both urban and rural areas. Establish monitoring programmes including periodic surveillance of approved waste disposal sites and their surroundings and waste water systems. Establish monitoring stations for the control of the disposal of leachate from dumpsites into surface water and groundwater systems Under this Act, all states and local government set up their own environmental protection body for the protection and improvement of the environment within its jurisdiction. In 1999 (Ogwueleka, 2009), FEPA was taken over by the Federal Ministry of Environment to combat some of the challenges faced which include absence of pollution waste management laws, lack of environmental enforcement, funding, role conflicts power play between FEPA workers and some powerful individuals whose companies not ready to pay for services. It still conformed to all the regulation stated above but even with this change of hands, there was still inadequate provision of solid waste services in Nigeria. According to (Imam et al, 2008: Ogwueleka, 2009) solid waste management in Nigeria is characterised by in efficient collection methods, insufficient coverage of the collection system and improper disposal. Lack of institutional arrangement, insufficient funds absence of standards and by-laws, insufficient information on waste composition and quantity, inflexible work schedule and inappropriate technology transfer are the common constraints faced by environmental agencies in solid waste management.75-95% of the revenue of solid waste is spent on collection and disposal and only 40-70% is collected from the urban areas. Most of the rural areas have no SWM facility. Presently emphasis is been focused on better institutional arrangement through privatization and less on collection and disposal due to the inadequate government service delivery. Privatization is been tested in cities like Abuja (Imam., 2008), Lagos (Ogwueleka, 2009) and Benin (Ogu., 2000) but have not improved the service delivery due to all the factors above including corruption, lack of planning of route service delivery, affordability and acceptability. Finally, (Ogwueleka, 2009) argued that since in Nigeria there is an abundance of cheap labour the use of a low capital cost and labour intensive solution that reduces poverty will be preferred. It should include low technology like handcarts and pickup trucks for collection, informal sector involvement (waste pickers), training, local waste recycling and reduction projects, transfer stations to reduce operating cost, community participation and involvement. In conclusion Adegoreyo, (1994) stated that stable leadership and firm commitment of government in formative years to any enforcement programme with set goals, objectives and responsibilities including capacity building should be uttermost to ensure the improvements. 2.3.4 Source Separation Studies into source separation in Nigeria though it is highly relevant according to most researchers are not been preformed. (Onibokun., 1999: Ogu., 2000: Agunwamba, 2003).This has constrained the author to review literature of other developing countries, implementation methods and success rate of source separation to infer if it will adequate for Nigeria. The scavengers do little or no form of recycling it is more of reuse. (Agunwamba, 2003) Informal Practices In Nigeria, gifts of clothes and goods to relatives, charities, and servants as a means of source separation are significant in waste reduction. However, the greatest amount of materials recovery is achieved through the following: (a) Itinerant waste buyers (IWBs): These are waste collectors who often go from door-to-door, collecting specific recyclable materials and/or organic wastes from households, which they buy or barter. Individual IWBs tend to specialize in one or two kinds of materials. (b) Street waste picking: Secondary raw materials recovered from mixed waste found on streets or extracted from communal bins before collection. (c) Municipal waste collection crew: Secondary raw materials recovered from vehicles transporting waste to disposal sites. (d) Waste picking from dumps: Waste pickers/ scavengers sort through waste before it is covered at the site of final disposal, which is still generally open dumping in Nigeria. (Wilson et al, 2009) From the point of view of waste reduction, the traditional practices of repair and reuse, and the sale, barter, or gift-giving of used goods and surplus materials are an advantage to the poorer countries. Quantities of inorganic post-consumer wastes entering the MSW stream would be higher if these forms of waste reduction did not exist.(UNEP,2005) Formal Practices. There is no formal practice in place for source separation at present although Federal Ministry of Environment (2000) specified in the Blue print for municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Nigeria that separation at source is one of the viable alternatives/complement to an integrated solid waste management programme. 2.3.5 Solid waste practices in universities in Nigeria 2.4 Solid waste practices in University of Benin, Benin-City Solid waste management in the university is the collection and disposal of waste. The waste generated is placed in bins for collection. There is no informal sector to do any separation though some of the waste workers salvage the useful recyclables for reuse but this does not even account for up to 1% of the total amount generated. Most times the waste generated is so much that not all the waste is removed during collection so decomposition begins on the left over waste, which will cause bad odours and breeding grounds for rodents and disease carrying insects. Some leachates are also produced which might pollute the land and water around. The final disposal site for the waste is an open dump that allows further pollution because there is no control over waste deposited or the by-products of open dump disposal. Without adequate attention, there is a major risk to the health of the staff and students in the university and to the environment. 3. Summary of Literature Review 3.1 Methodologies Most of the researches into waste characterization were studied using quantitative and qualitative methods (questionnaires, interviews, observation, focus groups and fieldwork) this is to ensure the viability of the studies and close the loop (Chung S.S Poon C.S.,1996: Ghorbani M. et al , 2007:Imam., 2008). For sampling, random sampling was employed since some information about the sample space is known