Thursday, October 31, 2019

Ethical Processes Within Companies Nike Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Ethical Processes Within Companies Nike - Essay Example Indera Nababan, the member of the Yakoma, a nonprofit organization in Indonesia, also said that the company pays the underaged employees with a basic minimum wage of 5,200 Indonesian rupiahs, equivalent to US $2.17, that is barely enough for them to survive and show up at work the next day. (Harsono, 1996) Another instance of the was seen in Cambodia where Nike, a company which offers millions of dollars worth of sponsorship deals, was caught having children, as young as 12 years old, as employees. These children were being paid a mere 31 pounds a month. This evidence was caught on tape by BBC journalists filming undercover at the Nike factory in Cambodia. Moreover, a child was found having false papers as a proof of age to get the job. (Johnson, 2000) In response to the allegations that were made regarding the underage employment in Indonesia, Phil Knight, CEO of Nike, declared a set of policies that were going to be adopted by Nike as code of conduct (Connor, 2001). These included setting a minimum age of 18 years for employment in the footwear factory in Indonesia. Also, the company promised to meet U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) standards in the work environment. Moreover, the employees were promised to be given education of high school equivalen t courses in the factories.These policies were enough to change the picture of child labor Indonesia. The decision of minimum age was widely considered to be a brave step by Nike to eradicate child labor, at least from its domain.Nike took another bold step and pulled out its factory in Cambodia after being stamped with the child labor scandal. Following the allegations, Nike management in Britain initiated

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Business Strategy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 2

Business Strategy - Essay Example Best cost strategy combines strategic emphasis on low cost as well as focused differentiation. It focuses on giving its customers more value for money. For E.g. Kingfisher Red Airlines is an example of best cost airlines providing luxury of Kingfisher Airlines but at comparatively lower price than that of competitors in luxury segment. The product line of company employing best cost strategy has products with appealing attributes and assorted upscale features. The aim of focused differentiation strategy is to secure a competitive advantage through offering customers of niche market with a product that they perceive as vary well suited to their needs, tastes and preferences. The strategic target of focused differentiation strategy is a narrow market in which needs and preferences of the buyers are distinctively different. Attributes appealing specifically towards niche members forms the basis of competitive advantage in focused differentiation strategy. B. Explain in detail, IKEA†™s hybrid strategy? IKEA used a mix of low cost and differentiation strategies as a part of its hybrid strategy. They used innovative means for attracting customers and people who can become there prospective customers in near future. The company tried to create differentiation in the retailing industry it operated in. It could be taken instance from the fact that the company allowed its customers to relax in its western style stores in a view that they could be aspiring customers of IKEA in near future. The production emphasis of products in focused differentiation strategy depends on customization meeting the tastes and requirements of targeted customers. The marketing emphasis of this strategy is towards communicating that how the product offers all the requirements in meeting buyers’ expectation in target market. Commitment in serving to niche markets better than rivals remains the key of sustaining the strategy. C. Why is IKEA’s hybrid strategy is difficult for competitors to imitate? Hybrid strategy is difficult for imitate and lend IKEA to outsmart competition. This is because through hybrid strategy IKEA is created a mix of two competitive strategies i.e. low cost and differentiation and the mix of these two strategies becomes difficult to imitate. D. Explain 3 business risks that IKEA faces in its hybrid strategy? The three business risks related to hybrid strategy are: These strategies could lack flexibility for IKEA in the scenario of changing external environment. These strategies could lack specificity in a long run for IKEA. Hybrid strategies help a company majorly when the organization has resources and capabilities of employing the strategy and serving an attractive niche market. Question 2 Provide the explanation with two examples in each of the 5 macro environmental influences that IKEA face from operating internationally? Macro-Economic Forces This includes forces at national and regional level that affects the company. IKEA is retail chain build on a global platform where factors like inflation rates, interest rate and current exchange rates in bear some impact, but such impact can’t be considered influential. As the interest rates are slashed as a result of recession in the economy, the company could borrow money at a cheaper interest rate. Same is the case with changes in current

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Impact Of Product Bundling In Indian Retail Banking Marketing Essay

Impact Of Product Bundling In Indian Retail Banking Marketing Essay The retail banking is the growth trigger of the banks. Even though there is a phenomenal opportunities for growth in retail banking, the challenges are also daunting. Banks are struggling to retain its customers through retail banking. According to Reichheld research, a 5 per cent increase in customer retention can increase profitability by 35 per cent in banking business. The pervasive practice of bundling the products by banks, have built up so much momentum over the past few years in Europe, Asia and Pacific countries. The concept of product bundling is not widely used by Indian banks, since it is not legally accepted by RBI guidelines. Private sector banks are having this type of retailing products in non-core areas of banking. For example, ICICI bank is providing home loan insurance cover exclusively to its home loan customers with tie-up with ICICI Lombard insurance. Previous researches proved that bundling strategies not only retain the customers but also reduces the variable cost of the products. The primary purpose of the research is to find out the cause and effect of product bundling in financial quality system of banking. The retail marketing factors are measured with service marketing factors ie, product, price, promotion, place, process, physical evidence and person. The financial quality system is identified based on the CAMELS system ie., Capital, Asset quality, Management quality , Earning quality , Liquidity and Sensitivity to market risk. Primary data were collected from the 200 customers of ICICI Bank home loan borrowers. Cluster analysis is used to group them. The effect on financial quality is measured based on interview conducted among the 25 regional managers of the same bank. The results show that the retail marketing factors are having high impact on financial quality system. Hence product bundling concept balances the operational and financial risk to have financial sustainability in retail banking. Key words: Product bundling, CAMELS, Core banking. Introduction The banking sector has witnessed wide ranging changes under the influence of the financial Sector reforms initiated during 2009. The approach to such reforms in India has been one of gradual and non-disruptive progress through a consultative process. The emphasis has been on deregulation and opening up the banking sector to market forces. The Reserve Bank has been consistently working towards the establishment of an enabling regulatory framework with prompt and effective supervision as well as the development of technological and institutional infrastructure. Persistent efforts have been made towards adoption of international benchmarks as appropriate to Indian conditions. While certain changes in the legal infrastructure are yet to be effected, the developments so far have brought the Indian financial system closer to global standards. Banks are now moving towards Universal Banking, which is a combination of commercial banking, investment banking and various other activities includi ng insurance. Banks will need to create value in new ways, notably through differentiation on offers and services. Banks have to strengthen the added value they bring to clients by personalizing their customer approach and developing their advisory capacities.By international standards, however, there is still much scope for retail banking in India. After all, retail loans constitute less than seven per cent of GDP in India vis-à  -vis about 35 per cent for other Asian economies South Korea (55 per cent), Taiwan (52 per cent), Malaysia (33 per cent) and Thailand (18 per cent). is a likelihood that the growth numbers seem to get somewhat exaggerated. Hence there is a need of constant innovation in retail banking. This requires product development and differentiation, innovation and business process reengineering, micro-planning, marketing, prudent pricing, customisation, technological upgradation, home / electronic / mobile banking, cost reduction and cross-selling. Service bundling offers one me thod of cross-selling that places less of the burden on the bank employee who, despite training, often simply lacks the skills and/or motivation to be an effective salesperson, and more on the design and promotion of the product. Due to bundling of services and delivery channels, the areas of potential conflicts of interest tend to increase in universal banks and financial conglomerates. A product bundle as a bilateral contract must guarantee a possibility to obtain extra profit /or saving/ for each partner /bank versus customer/ at agreed price level /or discount/, but as well as both of them must accept some uncertainty or risk of lost. Bundling means offering two or more products together as a package.. Bundled accounts have built up so much momentum over the past few years that they have become a dominant focus of the retail operations at many banks. The practice is pervasive in the banking industry. Application of bundling strategies in retail banking reduces a banks variable cost for selling, secures both stable and higher income by periodical fees for covering high fix running costs as well. The biggest opportunity for current retail banking is building a strong relationship with customer by cross- selling extra bundled products, which leads to a higher retention and loyalty of customers. Empirical findings prove the paradox, that product bundles with discounted price for customer generate extra profit for bank, hand in hand with a still increasing customer satisfaction. Clever construction of bundles and bounded rationality decision making of customer offers a solution of profitable discounts not only for a banking sector, but at least for sector of services. According to a research by Reichheld and Sasser in the Harvard Business Review, 5 per cent increase in customer retention can increase profitability by 35 per cent in banking business, 50 per cent in insurance and brokerage, and 125 per cent in the consumer credit card market. Thus, banks need to emphasise retaining customers and increasing market share. Review The Dynamic Pricing and Product Bundling application standardizes a banks pricing and product bundling processes and allows the bank to reduce maintenance costs and increase its cross-sell opportunities(Morphy, 2006). The easiest way to retain the bank customers is to test the market by shuffling the existing product mix and creating new bundled offerings to optimize deposit growth (Barham, 2007). Clever construction of bundles and bounded rationality decision making of customer offers a solution of profitable discounts not only for a banking sector, but at least for sector of services.(Peter). The result is that customers generally get a superior annual percentage yield (APY), while the bank gets higher profit and volume. The secret by-product of bundling is the superior APY; it is what customers seek, it has the potential to drive balance with profitability, and it is a strategy largely overlooked by community banks. Concept of Product Bundling Product bundling is an intelligent strategy that is becoming increasingly popular in the banking sector. Banks offer multiple financial products and services to customers as a package. Bundling is generally recognized as a potentially appropriate means to tackle competition, to acquire new customers, to cross-sell new services to the existing customers and to retain the existing customers, who are getting increasingly savvy and sophisticated. Bundling helps to boost profits substantially by increasing the opportunity to cross-sell. It is also a great method for increasing the sales volume of products that are not in high demand. Bundling is not a new concept in retail banking. It has been existing for more than a decade-and-a-half, but there is a shift in focus now, as a result of which, it has gained popularity. Earlier, banks were mostly concerned with increasing the effectiveness of the use of its core banking products like current accounts and daily transaction-based activities. In the last few years, the priority has shifted to actively improving product penetration into the existing customer base, increasing sales by attracting new customers, innovating the product offerings, and lastly but most importantly, retaining and enhancing customer relationships and basing price reductions on the total volume and/or desired use of services. STANDARD CHARTERED Bank (SCB) is giving its Priority Banking customers up 12 per cent interest earnings through its latest wealth management offerings.In its new exclusive promotion, SCB Priority Banking customers will enjoy attractive interest rates on a Brunei Dollar fixed deposit when they invest in a unit trust at the same time. An intelligent pricing strategy that is becoming more and more popular in banking is bundling. One example is the NatWest package Advantage Gold. This bundle costs  £6 per month and combines a current account with lower interest rates for loans, rebates in certain insurance policies as well as various additional services such as lowest price guarantees for different articles, discounts for videos and DVDs, a customer magazine, commission-free traveller cheques, rebates for hotel stays, etc. In the Dutch market most cross selling in the consumer market is of a soft variety, that is, price inducements are offered to accept a bundle of services rather that exclusive tying arrangements. More often, bundle design decisions are based upon short term objectives such as attracting new customers, increasing fee income, or merely matching competitive offerings. There are two basic forms of bundling, pure and mixed. In pure bundling, the products or services cannot be purchased separately. They are available only in bundled form. In contrast, mixed bundling allows the consumer to purchase one or more of the services individually or to purchase the bundle Some examples of retail product bundles being offered by banks: If a customer maintains a defined amount of savings and has taken a defined amount of loan, then discounts are offered on interest rates, auto loans, free phone banking, counseling once-a-year, etc. Here again, there can be a tiered approach i.e. when balances/loan amounts increase, more discounts and additional free services are provided. Cluster analysis is used for classifying the consumer satisfaction variables into relatively homogeneous groups. The respondents were clustered on the basis of satisfaction level sought from the different attitudes under seven service marketing mix. The variables satisfaction levels are measured through five pointss summated rating scale i.e., strongly dissatisfied, dissatisfied, neutral, satisfied and strongly dissatisfied. The ratings are made as 1,2,3,4 and 5 respectively for each point. Product level satisfaction level is measured with the variables quality, scalability, multiplicity, reliability and security. Price level satisfaction is measured with the variables fair pricing, interest and transaction charges. Promotion level satisfaction is measured with the variables informative, awareness, receptive and attentive. Place level satisfaction is measured with the variables accessibility, convenience and diversified place. Process level satisfaction is measured with the variable s bundling, integration, processing time, and error-free process. Physical evidence (Documentation) level satisfaction is measured with the variables easy to go through, less documentation, unambiguous and legality. Person level satisfaction is measured with the variables involvement, technical support, friendliness and trust. The measure of similarity is measured by euclidean distance model. The reliability and validity of cluster analysis was done by making multiple runs using different order of cases. The clustering criterion was the Akaikes Information Criterion. The number of clusters was determined based on the minimum six-cluster solution. Based on the cluster group centroids of each service marketing mix, the level of satisfaction are labeled as impressive (>4), stirring (3.5 to 4.0), striking (3.0 to 3.5), modest (2.5 to 3.0,) un-impressive (2.0 to 2.5) and mediocre ( Two-group discriminant analysis is used to find out the disriminant factor among the existing customer and new customers using the product bundling . The independent variables are customer service level satisfaction variables i.e, product, price, promotion, place, process, physical evidence and person. The responses are rated based on the cluster centroid of each customer service level variables. The ratings for impressive, stirring, striking, modest, un-impressive and mediocre clusters are 6,5,4,3,2 and 1 respectively. The grouping variables are existing customer and new customers. Because there are two groups, only one discriminant function is estimated. The eigen value associated with this function is 1.64 and it accounts for 100 percent of the explained variance. The Wilks à « associated with this function is 0.312, which transforms to a chi-square of 32.45 with 7 degrees of freedom. This is significant beyond the o.o5 level. Hence null hypothesis is rejected. The structure matrix is displayed in Table-2. It appears that the existing and new customers are more widely separated in terms of price than that of other variables. The canonical correlation associated with this function is 0.783. The square of this correlation 0.61 indicates that 61% of the variance in the dependent variable is explained by this model. In 1995, RBI had set up a working group under the chairmanship of Shri S. Padmanabhan to review the banking supervision system. The Committee certain recommendations and based on such suggetions a rating system for domestic and foreign banks based on the international CAMELS model combining financial management and systems and control elements was introduced for the inspection cycle commencing from July 1998. It recommended that the banks should be rated on a five point scale (A to E) based on the lines of international CAMELS rating model. CAMELS evaluates banks on the following six parameters :- CAMEL approach will serve as an important. This will help lead to a low-cost high-quality result with secure profit levels. Capital Adequacy : Capital Adequacy is a measurement of a bank to determine if solvency can be maintained due to risks that have been incurred as a course of business. Capital allows a financial institution to grow, establish and maintain both public and regulatory confidence, and provide a cushion (reserves) to be able to absorb potential loan losses above and beyond identified problems. A bank must be able to generate capital internally, through earnings retention, as a test of capital strength. An increase in capital as a result of restatements due to accounting standard changes is not an actual increase in capital. Asset Quality : Asset Quality evaluates risk, controllability, adequacy of loan loss reserves, and acceptable earnings; and the affect of off-balance sheet earnings and loss. The quality of a banks assets hinges on their ability to be collected. Asset quality determines the portfolio quality, the portfolio classification system (aging schedule and the methodology to classifying a receivable) and the fixed assets (the productivity of the long-term assets, for instance the branch network). Management quality : Management quality envisages the strategic planning applied in each level of flow of funds. It is reflected by the ownership structure of the bank, branch network , loan portfolio management, credit administration, policy development, employee training, audit oversight, quality of governance and quality of information technology system Earnings : Earnings determine the ability of a bank to increase capital (through retained earnings), absorb loan losses, support the future growth of assets, and provide a return to investors. The largest source of income for a bank is net interest revenue (interest income from lending activity less interest paid on deposits and debt). The second most important source is from investing activity. A substantial source of income also comes from foreign exchange and precious metal trading, and commissions/transaction fees and trust operations. Liquidity : Liquidity measures the ability of a bank to meet the demand from demand deposits in a particular year. Liquidity is what a bank requires if funding is interrupted and the bank must still be able to meet certain obligations (banks ability to repay depositors and other creditors without incurring excessive costs). The liquidity is affected by the institutions liabilities, including their tenor, interest rate, payment terms, sensitivity to changes in the macroeconomic environment, types of guarantees required on credit facilities, sources of credit available to the institution and the extent of resource diversification. A banks least expensive means of funding loan growth is through deposit accounts. When this is not available, banks must rely on more expensive funding sources such as borrowing funds at wholesale rates or liquidating investment securities portfolios.

Friday, October 25, 2019

TapNet Business Plan Essays -- TapNet Business Management Essays

TapNet Business Plan TapNet Executive Summary (Trade Association Portal) represents a tremendous opportunity for it's directors, partners and potential stockholders. 1.1 The Opportunity The Internet and specifically business-to business applications are expanding at a tremendous rate. Many companies and associations are entering this portal area to provide valuable products services to the industry and generate economic profit at the same time. TapNet's Board of Directors saw this opportunity about year ago and has been fine tuning their concept and approach. Since this time, TapNet has moved forward and further developed the concept, gathered content and interacted with hundreds of potential customers around the world and gained their support. 1.2 The Application TapNet is more than a website or portal, it is an Internet based application that supports the trade association’s business operations, offers buyers and sellers the chance to find each other, interact and eventually purchase products and services on-line. TapNet provides these core competencies and capabilities to trade association, many of which could not afford these required business capabilities without TapNet as their provider. TapNet provides the foundation for a dominating site that drives the industry rather than just responding to it. TapNet plans to continue development of both its technology and the information resources it offers. This will be accomplished by developing buyer guide matrixes for associations to list their information, developing TapNet enabling features and functions, and by providing content and interaction that truly bring the trade association community closer together. TapNet will also provide a strong mar... ...nding Shares 3,850,000 Available to Public 4,000,000 40% Retained by Directors/Executives/Board 5,100,000 51% Remained authorized but unissued 200,000 2% Reserved for Stock Options for future employees 200,000 2% Total Shares Authorized 10,000,000 100% Use of Funds The capital raised during this offering will be used in the following ways: On-going Operations 12,288,701 Implement Technology Platform 2,187,556 Marketing Costs 260,000 Networks & Assets 4,474,800 Legal 20,000 Total Use of Funds 19,231,057 7.4 Investors Return Rate of Return over 4 years 226% 7.5 Exit Strategy Directors propose an outright sale of TapNet with in 48 months of launching offering. (1/2005)

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Succubus Revealed Chapter 11

It was hard leaving Seth's side in the morning. We'd had too few nights together recently, and each day that passed only served to remind me I was that much closer to the transfer. Lying in his arms, watching him sleep in the early sunlight, I thought back to what he'd said about Andrea getting better. If that was true, if she was healing, then there was a chance the ties keeping Seth here might lessen. I felt selfish even thinking that way, but surely it wasn't too terrible a thing to wish we could all get a happy ending. After a leisurely breakfast, Seth and I went over to the Mortensens'. He was on babysitting duty while Andrea went to a doctor's appointment, and I was there to pick up Brandy. Chaos met us at the door, and Brandy practically flew outside, breathless and laughing. â€Å"Don't go in there,† she warned me, after I gave Seth a quick kiss good-bye. She and I headed toward my car. â€Å"It's crazy. Mom and Dad slept in, and Grandma let Kendall and the twins ‘help' with breakfast.† â€Å"What are they making?† â€Å"Waffles,† she said. â€Å"From scratch. I don't know which was scarier: Kendall mixing the batter or Morgan and McKenna on duty with the waffle iron. They set the smoke detector off twice.† I couldn't help but laugh as I pulled out of the driveway. â€Å"And you and Kayla didn't help?† â€Å"No way,† Brandy replied. â€Å"I stayed away from that mess, and Kayla was in one of her silent moods today.† â€Å"Aw.† I kind of wished now that I'd taken a moment to go inside. Tiny Kayla had a special place in my heart. Though she was better than she used to be, she still had a tendency to simply watch her world without a word, and it could be difficult coaxing conversation from her. Some of this was shyness, and some of this – I suspected – was from the fact that Kayla was psychic. Her skills were still undeveloped, but she was sensitive to the workings of the supernatural world, which I had to imagine would make anyone of any age silent at times. â€Å"She'll be fine. She loves waffles.† Brandy smiled, and I was happy to see her so upbeat for a change. She shouldered just as much stress as the adults. â€Å"If any actually get made.† We drove downtown, and I quizzed Brandy about what she was looking for in a dress. She had little to offer, which was both charming and kind of heartbreaking. Brandy wasn't a tomboy, but with all of her family drama, dresses had been understandably off her radar. In fact, when her face lit up at all the downtown lights and decorations, it became clear that family had really been the only thing in her life recently. â€Å"I haven't seen any of the holiday stuff this year,† she told me, gazing out the windows. A pang in my heart reminded me that this would be my last year to see Seattle in all its holiday finery. â€Å"We usually always come down here so that the girls can see Santa. There's been no time.† â€Å"The girls haven't seen Santa?† I asked, snapping out of my moment of self-pity. â€Å"That's not fair, especially considering I see a little too much of him.† It made me wonder how many drinks it would take to coax Walter into a house call. It also convinced me more than ever to make this a special day for Brandy. I couldn't expect her not to worry about her mom, but today, with Andrea on the mend and Seattle's shopping wonderland ready to explore, Brandy was entitled to worry just a little less than usual. She deserved to think about herself. I took her on a whirlwind tour of designer stores, chastising her for looking at price tags. I wanted this to be about more than the dress itself. I wanted her to have an experience, to feel like a princess. I made sure the salespeople were falling all over themselves to help her, which wasn't always so easy to do at such a busy time of the year. Brandy's radiant expression told me it was worth the effort, and we finally hit gold at our third store, finding what was unquestionably the dress. It was made of dark pink satin wrapped around to create a sheath silhouette that could still show off her figure without being pornographically tight. Satin flowers near the top added a whimsical edge, and the straps and knee-length made me feel it wouldn't get her kicked out of a church function. We spent the next hour finding the perfect shoes and jewelry for it, and although each new purchase clearly made her uneasy, she stopped questioning me about the cost. She didn't know about Margaret's f unding, but it had long since been spent. Exhausted and triumphant with our purchases, we went to lunch at an Italian restaurant frequented by other ladies of leisure. It was inside a larger, elegant shopping complex, and just as we were about to enter the restaurant, I saw a familiar face emerge from a nearby store. Something in my chest clenched, and I spoke before I could help myself. â€Å"Doug!† It took him a moment to figure out who'd called to him. When he did, a series of emotions played over his face. I wondered then how the encounter would have been different if Brandy hadn't been there. Would he have even acknowledged me? Maybe. Maybe not. But Brandy's presence guaranteed politeness. No matter how angry Doug might be at me, he wouldn't snub her. â€Å"Kincaid,† he said, strolling over to us. â€Å"And little Brandy. How's it going?† â€Å"Good,† she said cheerfully. The two of them, I realized, could have been related if Seth and Maddie had ended up getting married. The weird fallout from their breakup hadn't had as big an effect on Brandy as the rest of us, though, and she was genuinely happy to see him. â€Å"We're shopping.† He favored her with a smile, and I wondered if he was avoiding eye contact with me. â€Å"Last minute Christmas gifts?† he asked. â€Å"Not a chance,† I said. â€Å"This is all for Brandy. She's going to a dance tonight.† â€Å"Oh, I see how it is,† he said. â€Å"Getting ready to break some hearts for the holidays, huh?† She turned bright red. â€Å"No! It's at my church!† Teasing girls was familiar and easy territory for Doug. â€Å"Yeah?† he said, forcibly keeping a straight face. â€Å"Then why are you blushing? Church boys' hearts break just as easily as us sinners', you know. I'm sure you'll leave a trail of hundreds in your wake.† â€Å"No,† she protested. â€Å"Not hundreds – â€Å" â€Å"Just one?† he asked slyly. Brandy looked to me for help, and I laughed. â€Å"I knew there was someone.† â€Å"You guys are terrible,† she said, though she didn't look that upset. â€Å"Can I go put our name on the list?† â€Å"Sure,† I said, still laughing. But the instant she was inside the restaurant, Doug's playful manner vanished. â€Å"Well, I've got to go,† he said, starting to turn away. â€Å"Wait, Doug, I . . .† He looked back at me, but I was at a loss. What could I say? That I was sorry for sleeping with his sister's fiance? That I was sorry for lying to all of them and breaking her heart? How could you apologize for something like that? â€Å"It . . . it was good to see you,† I said at last. â€Å"You too,† he said, though he didn't sound convincing. He nodded toward the restaurant. â€Å"And her. I hope she has fun.† â€Å"Me too. She deserves it, what with everything else going on.† He had attempted to leave again, but my words made him pause. â€Å"How's her mom?† I shrugged. â€Å"Good days and bad days. It's up and down. . . . sometimes it seems hopeless, sometimes it's like everything's fixed. Wreaks havoc on everyone. . . . you just can't assume anything, you know? She's having some good days right now, but it's been a hard road for all of them. We just never know what's going to happen next and have to hang in there as best we can. I'm trying to help, but I don't know. . . . I don't feel like it's enough. But what could be?† I promptly shut up, realizing I was rambling. Doug said nothing, his dark eyes studying me for several heavy seconds. Then, his gaze shifted to Brandy, speaking to the hostess, for a few more moments before returning to me. â€Å"You're a good person, Kincaid,† he said softly. And this time, he did leave. Nothing else he might have said could have surprised me more. In all the imagined conversations I'd had with Doug, I'd expected frigid politeness at best – and that had seemed like a long shot. More often than not, I'd envisioned him telling me terrible, hurtful things, things I deserved. As much as a secret part of me yearned for him to forgive me so that we could be friends again, I really didn't think I deserved that forgiveness. I watched him walk away until Brandy stuck her head out from the restaurant door and called that they had a table. Despite how pensive my meeting with Doug left me, I was still able to enjoy the rest of the afternoon with Brandy. We were both in good spirits when we arrived back at the Mortensen home, and mine soared even higher when I saw Seth's car in the driveway. I hurried inside, eager to see him, only to have my mood shatter when I saw his face. Margaret and Terry wore similar expressions. Brandy, normally so observant, was too keyed up over her purchases to notice that there had been a significant mood shift in the house, compared to the bubbly chaos of this morning. â€Å"We had such a great time,† Brandy told them, face shining. â€Å"I got the best dress.† Margaret gave her a tight smile. â€Å"Why don't you try it on for us?† Brandy didn't need to be told twice, and Kendall and the twins followed her uproariously to the bedroom, offering to â€Å"help.† The instant they were gone, I turned to the adults. â€Å"What happened?† â€Å"Bad prognosis at the doctor's,† said Seth, when no one else spoke right away. â€Å"But she was improving,† I argued. I looked at them all for confirmation. â€Å"Right?† â€Å"We thought so,† said Terry. â€Å"At the very least, she seemed to be feeling better. But in these situations . . . well, cancer tricks you that way. It's why people go so long without ever knowing they have it. She woke up feeling bad this morning, and the doctor confirmed our fears.† I was kind of in awe at how calmly he managed to deliver that. I wasn't sure I could have without breaking down. Honestly, I didn't know how he'd been able to handle any of this with as much strength and determination as he had. If this were happening to the love of my life, I was pretty sure I'd crawl into in a corner and cry. Or would I? Looking at Seth, at those beloved features and compassionate expression, I suddenly knew that wasn't true. If the one I loved needed my strength, then I would give all I had within me. â€Å"We're not telling Brandy yet,† said Seth. â€Å"We're not going to keep it from her, but we figured it would be best to wait until after tonight.† I nodded slowly, having no words. I was usually so quick with a quip or soothing line, but what response could I make to that? Especially when, moments later, Brandy came bounding back down the stairs in the pink dress. Each twin held a shoe, and Kendall carried the glittering chandelier earrings we'd found just before lunch. I was reminded of Cinderella's mouse retainers. Brandy's tastes had been foremost in my mind while shopping, but I'd also had half an eye on what I thought her family would approve of in fashion. As she spun around for them, however, I realized it didn't matter. I could've brought her home in rags, and they would've loved it so long as she wore the look of radiance on her face that she did now. That was what sold it, one spot of pure joy in the dark cloud that kept hanging over this family. The adults were too overcome with emotion to speak, so Kendall did it for us. â€Å"Doesn't she look like a princess?† She kept trying to smooth nonexistent wrinkles out of the skirt, much to Brandy's dismay. â€Å"I want a dress like this.† Morgan sat down on the floor and tried to forcibly push the shoe on Brandy's foot while she still stood, furthering my Cinderella images. McKenna joined in as well, and both nearly succeeded in knocking their older sister over. â€Å"Well?† Brandy laughed. â€Å"What do you think?† â€Å"It's beautiful,† said Margaret. â€Å"You're beautiful,† said Terry. Having successfully dislodged the twins, Brandy stepped into the shoes, flushing under the praise of her family. â€Å"I hope I don't fall in these. How stupid would that look?† â€Å"I don't think anything could make you look stupid,† said Seth. â€Å"You're perfect from head to toe.† â€Å"Okay, you guys,† said Brandy, growing embarrassed. â€Å"Now you're just pushing it.† The â€Å"head to toe† comment suddenly reminded me of something. â€Å"Oh. I won't be here to do your hair. I have to go to work soon.† At that moment, calling in sick seemed like a reasonable idea. Nothing seemed more important than giving her a perfect night. â€Å"That's okay,† said Brandy. â€Å"I can do it. Or maybe Mom can.† â€Å"She's been kind of tired today,† said Terry neutrally. â€Å"But I know she'll want to see you before you leave.† â€Å"I can do a French twist,† said Margaret, surprising us all. â€Å"If you want to wear it up.† â€Å"Will you show me?† asked Brandy. Margaret nodded. â€Å"Sure, let's go upstairs.† Before they did, Brandy paused to give me a giant hug. â€Å"Thank you so much, Georgina. For everything.† They went upstairs, followed by the littler girls, all of whom thought there was nothing so wonderful as dressing up their older sister. Actually, I realized, that wasn't entirely true. Not all of them felt that way. â€Å"Where's Kayla?† I asked. She hadn't been in the entourage. Terry sighed and ran a hand through his hair, in a way similar to what I'd often seen Seth do. â€Å"In the living room, I think. She's been out of sorts today. Sometimes I think she can figure out what's going on, even when we don't tell her.† With Kayla's abilities, I didn't doubt it was true. I remembered Brandy saying Kayla had been in a â€Å"silent mood† since this morning and wondered just how much of her mother's illness the little girl was in tune with. I left the brothers to seek her out and found her curled up in a corner of the overstuffed sofa, making herself so small that she was almost lost in the cushions. â€Å"Hey, you,† I said, sitting down beside her. â€Å"How's it going? Don't you want to see Brandy's dress?† Kayla shifted her face, looking at me with huge blue eyes. â€Å"Georgina,† she said. â€Å"You have to make it stay away.† My thoughts were on the dress, so it took a moment for me to follow what she was saying. â€Å"Make what stay away, honey?† â€Å"The Darkness.† There was something in the way she said the word that let me know she wasn't referring to shadows. When she said â€Å"Darkness,† I could feel the personification in her word, the looming threat of something – or someone – tangible. With a pang, I remembered that Kayla had been able to sense Nyx when she'd escaped her angelic captors. I leaned toward Kayla, glad Seth and Terry were preoccupied. â€Å"Kayla, are you talking about . . . about the creature you felt before? The one you could sense on me?† Nyx's return would be a complication I most certainly didn't need in my life right now. She shook her head. â€Å"A different one. The Darkness comes here, to my house. To see my mommy. Will you make it go away?† â€Å"Is it here now?† I asked uneasily. â€Å"No. Just sometimes.† â€Å"How many times?† Kayla thought about it. â€Å"Two.† A cold feeling crept over me. â€Å"Was last night one of those times?† She nodded. â€Å"Have you seen it?† I asked her. â€Å"No. But I feel it. I can tell where it's at when it's here.† She peered at me beseechingly. â€Å"Will you make it stop?† I had no clue what this Darkness was or what I could do to stop it, but theories were running wild in my head. I kissed her forehead. â€Å"I'll do what I can, baby. I promise. I've got to leave now, but I'll see what I can find out for you, okay? We'll make sure the Darkness doesn't come back.† Like the flip of a switch, Kayla's whole demeanor changed. Whereas she'd been sad and withdrawn moments ago, she was now beaming and hopeful. All that faith – in me. With my empty assurance to take on something I didn't understand, she was able to put aside all of her fears and worries. All was right in her world now, thanks to me. She put her arms around me and kissed me back, and I felt like my heart would break when I finally untangled myself from her. Holiday cheer was calling, as well as a burning need to suddenly talk to Roman. Seeing as how we kept missing each other lately, I sent him a text with a reminder of when I'd be home tonight and that I had important information for him. He was so caught up in his conspiracy theories that I wasn't sure if he'd want to make time for what he'd probably see as a little girl's fantasies. Kayla's perceptions – despite her difficulties in articulating them – had proven accurate before. I didn't know what she was sensing this time, but if there was a force inside the Mortensen household, I intended to stop it.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Commercial aviation

Introduction Yield management can be described as the collection of processes, techniques used by airlines to make its customers pay as much as possible for their seats, while maintaining load-factor., (Alderighi et al, 2012). Mittal et al (2013) added that it has become near impossible to sustain a business without affective yield management, in particular when capacity is constrained. It was also noted that increased competition through low-cost carriers has created an environment where yield management must be monitored to ensure carriers can compete effectively on price, (Vila, 2011). This assignment will consider how airlines use yield management as a tool to meet management strategies, providing examples to support research. The strategies that emerge from this use will also be considered along with their effectiveness. The main strategy of the airline is to maximize revenue from its available inventory of stock (its seats). The strategy is to sell the right seats to the right people, (Kimes, 1989). The airline must find a trade-off between discounting its seat to increase sales and fill its inventory, while selling full-fare tickets to generate profits its operations, (Vila, 2011). Airlines Fixed Capacity The reasoning behind the need for yield management is the fixed capacity faced by airlines. Airplanes have a fixed capacity (seating) and so will attempt to generate the greatest income from the availability. Furthermore, airlines must also consider that their operations face a high-level of fixed costs in terms of staffing, fuel etc. Given this, the airline needs to manage capacity to ensure profitability, (Sheehan, 2013). The equation for yield management could be shown as: The formula above compares the revenue achieved with the maximum potential revenue. For example, take an aircraft with 200 seats, which could each sell for ?100, adding up to maximum potential revenue of ?20,000. However, the carrier has only sold 150 seats at an average of ?80 (total ?12,000 revenue) per seat given early discounts and last-minute offers. Given this, the equation will be: Market Segmentation With the above, airlines have generally been successful given their ability to segment the market with a number of strategies. Firstly, airlines have adapted their strategies to offer a number of ticketing options, allowing them to differentiate prices, also seen in the hotel sector in terms of room offering, Dunbar (2003). One main factor is flexibility; some consumers will prefer the lowest-cost ticket with non-cancellation or change, while some will be willing to pay more for the same seat given the flexibility to cancel/change their booking. Another example could be the timing of flights; some consumers will be willing to pay more for daytime flight than an overnight flight, while again, some consumers will be willing to pay more for a direct flight than a flight with numerous changes, (Shaw, 2012). However, airlines are able to use connection flights as a way to control inventory by flying consumers to a hub airport, where they can then fill up other flights capacity. For example, take a journey from London Heathrow to Tokyo; a consumer could either fly direct with British Airways for around ?900/ return or fly with Emirates, with a connection in their Dubai hub, for around ?650/ return, with Emirates benefitting from filling up inventory on its flights, (Expedia, 2014) [Online]. Finally, one the most common forms of segmentation is different ‘classes’ available on flights. While some of the cheaper airlines only offer standard class to focus on the price-sensitive consumers, major airlines have developed a number of classes to differentiate pricing. For example, a consumer could fly economy, premium economy, extra-legroom, business-class and first-class, which all over a slightly different service, allowing the airline to charge a different price as well as appealing to different customers, (Belobaba et al, 2009). Inventory To airlines, their inventory is their seat capacity, which could be seen as ‘perishable’ – if the plane departs with empty seats, the capacity is lost and no revenue can be derived. Again, this brings into question a trade-off, between selling advanced tickets at a lower price to ensure a desired ‘load-factor’, while also saving capacity in the hope that a higher-paying customer will purchase. This brings into question fluctuating demand by time and season. Yield Management may be used as a tool to smooth the demand pattern, which may see some airlines fares change by the hour/ day, (Alderighi et al, 2012). For example, an airline may increase its business class seats during the week, working hours; given the main demand for this offering will be business travelers, who would be more likely to make the booking during the working week. Furthermore, an airline may also increase its price during peak seasons, given the higher underlying demand, leading to increased revenue, which could then be used to support lower prices in the low season to entice customers. Airlines will respond to increased demand by upping prices; an example could be seen with flights from the UK to Brazil for the upcoming World Cup (Clarke, 2013) [Online]. According to Lufthansa Systems (2014: 1) [Online]: â€Å"Today’s airline business is evolving into a two-tier industry: global alliances are reaching worldwide coverage and no-frills carriers are gaining market share with a low-cost, point-to-point product.† No-Frills airlines increase competition The continued expansion of no-frills airlines coupled with the recent economic depression has combined to dampen demand for major carriers such as British Airways (BA), KLM on some routes, (Alderighi et al, 2012). This move has been supported by new, more fuel-efficient aircraft and also development of infrastructure, which has allowed these low-cost carriers to operate from new ‘hubs’, (Weiss, 2014) [Online]. For example, in London, the majority of major international carriers such as BA, Emirates, Virgin operate predominantly from London Heathrow, however, the development of Stansted airport has provide greater capacity for Ryanair and EasyJet, at lower costs, while the infrastructure development has allowed the airport to be a viable option for customers throughout London and the South, (Neufville, 2008). Closer Integration to Control In a bid to counter increased competition and improve capacity efficiency, airlines are continuing to integrate and form alliances, (Merkert, 2012). For example, BA recently merged with Spain’s Iberia, given it greater access to South American routes, (BBC Business, 2010) [Online], while also buying smaller regional UK carrier BMI, to take control over its Heathrow landing slots, (CAPA, 2013). Furthermore, BA is also part of the ‘OneWorld’ alliance, with other airlines such as American Airlines (AA) among others, (OneWorld, 2014) [Online]. Apart from OneWorld, Star-Alliance and SkyTeam are the other major alliances. These alliances allow airlines to share capacity, reducing the need for direct competition on a number of routes, which could then lower price. According to IATA (2013), customers now demand a ‘from anywhere to anywhere’ service, which is impossible for one airline to supply efficiently, increasing the need for connection flights and multiple carriers. On their own, few airlines would be able to generate the needed traffic to justify a daily non-stop service; furthermore some airlines may be constricted by availability of infrastructure and flight capacity, (CAPA, 2013). For example, take BA, the airline is currently restricted by capacity at Heathrow airport, which may restrict its opportunity to serve each US route; however through joining with AA in the alliance, BA could offer services a selected number of major US hubs, where AA could then fly customers onto their final destination, (Wu, 2014). This will also reduce the need for major capital deployment into new air craft from BA, BA could focus these resources on new routes and emerging markets for example. Research from Brueckner and Spiller (1994), Bailey and Liu (1995) and Brueckner and Whalen (2000) all concluded that consumers put great emphasis on price and network scope. Network scope is increasingly relevant for business travelers as globalization opens up new markets and opportunities, increasing the need for services to a wide range of destinations. Network depth, with a choice of convenient timings for travel, is also important for these passengers, (IATA, 2013). However, not all airlines have adopted alliances, instead moving on with major expansion plans, with the main example Emirates. The airline has increased its fleet in a bid to expand routes rapidly; however, this has been supported by major capacity at its Dubai hub coupled with a favorable location between the growing African and Asian markets. Furthermore, backing from Dubai, who are pushing to turn the emirate into a major tourism destination are supporting major capital outlays on new aircraft, also allowing the carrier to undercut on prices, (Arabian Money, 2013) [Online]. Technology Carriers can also use technology in a bid to aide yield management. For example, carriers can use a Computer Reservation System (CRS) to track purchases of seats in terms of time, price. As more sales move online and onto carrier websites, carriers will find it easier to track demand for their flights. With this information, carrier ay determine optimum times to sell higher-priced tickets or levels at which to discount to attract sufficient demand to fill the plane. Carriers could also utilse information from Global Distribution Systems (GDS) such as Galileo Desktop, which is: â€Å"Galileo Desktop is a sophisticated global reservation, business management and productivity system that gives you vast content options, accurate pricing capabilities, and highly capable booking tools.† (Travelport, 2014) [Online] These systems could be used along with information from Passenger Name Records (PNR) to analysis customer behavior and buying habits to ensure greater achieved revenue. For example, a carrier such as Ryanair may use the data to determine its optimal pricing, given the focus on price for low-cost airlines. This may prevent the carrier from over-discounting on tickets, increasing achieved revenue. The more information that a carrier can collect on customer behavior, the greater chance they have of determining a pricing strategy to achieve the greatest revenue, (Wensveen, 2011) Concluding Remarks From the discussion above, the issue of yield management has gained greater emphasis as the continued expansion of ‘No-Frills’ airlines and a more price-sensitive consumer have led to greater need to control costs. In a bid to control their revenue, airlines have adopted a number of methods, with market segmentation continuing to be a main point. Airlines have focused on splitting the market, offering new seat/booking options to justify a differing price; to add, with the deliveries of the new Airbus A380’s, a number of airlines are increasing the top-market offerings such as individual cabins and lay-down beds to increase revenue from the business/first-class segment, allowing them to compete more effectively for the price-sensitive consumer in economy class. Furthermore, airlines are now concentrating on joint ventures and alliances to further increase efficiency and reduce costs in a bid to maintain yields as increased competition put little potential for price increases. The discussion has shown that these ventures provide great potential for airlines when faced with capacity and infrastructure issues. References Alderighi, M, Nicolini, M and Piga, C (2012): Combined Effects of Load Factors and Booking Time on Fares: Insight from the Yield Management of the Low-Cost Airline, Italy, Italy, Fondazione Eni. Alderighi, M, Cento, A, Nijkamp, P and Rietveld, P (2012)1: Competition in the European aviation market: the entry of low-cost airlines, Journal of Transport Geography, 24, pp223-233. Arabian Money (2013) [Online]: Seat sale as Emirates expands aggressively for market share, Available at, Accessed 04/03/2014. Bailey and Liu (1995): Airline Consolidation and Consumer Welfare, Eastern Economic Journal, 21 (4), pp10-24. BBC Business (2010) [Online]: British Airways and Iberia sign merger agreement, Available at, Accessed 04/03/2014. Belobaba, P, Odoni, A and Barnhart, C (2009): The Global Airline Industry, USA, Wiley. Brueckner and Spiller (1994): Economies of Traffic Density in the Deregulated Airline Industry, Journal of Law and Economics, 379. Brueckner, J and Whalen, W (2000): The Price Effects of International Airline Alliances, The Journal of Law and Economics, 43 (2), pp42-56. CAPA (2013): Heathrow Airports slot machine, UK, CAPA. Clarke, D (2013) [Online]: England fans warned to expect high-prices in Brazil, Available at, Accessed 05/03/2014. Dunbar, I (2004): Market segmentation: How to do it, how to profit from it, USA, Elsevier Publications. IATA (2013): The economic benefits generated by alliances and joint ventures, USA, IATA. Kimes, S (1989): Yield Management: a tool for capacity-considered service firms, Journal of Operations Management, 8 (4), pp348-363. Lufthansa Systems (2014) [Online]: revenue Management and Pricing, Available at, Accessed 05/03/2014. Merkert, R and Morrell, P (2012): Mergers and Acquisitions in aviation-management and economic perspectives on the size of airlines, Logistics and Transportation Review, 48 (4), pp853-862. Neufville, R (2008): Low-Cost Airports for Low-Cost Airlines, Transportation Planning and Technology, 31 (1), pp35-68. OneWorld (2014) [Online]: Member Airlines, Available at, Accessed 04/03/2014. Mittal, P, Kumar, R and Suri, P (2013): A Genetic Simulator for Airline Yield Management, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, 2 (9). Shaw, S (2012): Airline marketing and management, UK, Ashgate Publishing. Sheehan, J (2013): Business and Corporate Aviation Management: Second Edition, USA, McGraw Hill Professional. Travelport (2014): Galileo Desktop, Available at, Accessed 04/03/2014. Vila, N and Corcoles, M (2011): Yield management and airline strategic groups, Tourism Economics, 17 (2), pp261-278. Voneche, F (2005): Yield Management in the Airline Industry, USA, Berkeley. Wensveen, J (2011): Air Transportation; A Management Perspective, London, Ashgate Publishing. Weiss, R (2014) [Online]: Lufthansa targets lower costs on new aircraft’s fuel use, Available at, Accessed 04/03/2014. Wu, C and Lee, A (2014): The impact of airline alliance terminal co-location on airport operations and terminal development, Journal of Air Transport Management, 36, pp69-77.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Advice to Will Executor Essay Essays

Advice to Will Executor Essay Essays Advice to Will Executor Essay Essay Advice to Will Executor Essay Essay Johns Will Execution Johns Will cannot be executed without making several legal references. Since its drafting in 2012, various changes have happened to Johns estate that may prompt the seeking of legal aid by its executor. Several clauses do not apply due to their ambiguity or lack of clarity. To start with, there is no residuary clause to guide its executor on the method of disposing of the remaining estate after all the wishes of the deceased are fulfilled. This absence means that Joe will have to refer to the Succession Act, 1965 before making any move. As it is, the will is marred with unachievable wishes that John made before his death. The will raises various questions about its validity, given that John did not seek any legal assistance when drafting the will. The inconsistencies that Joe finds out between the will and the reality also make him question the mental capacity of the testator at the time this will was drafted. The fact that John makes references to non-existing persons invokes the cl ause in the Succession Act of 1965 on Gifts that Fail. When making deliberations on the execution of the will, Joe must follow up the irregularities that are apparent in the will to avoid denying any beneficiary their share while also ensuring that the wishes of the deceased are fulfilled. One of the strategies that Joe must employ in making his decisions is intuition. He has a history with John, and he is better placed to deduce what John might have implied by making some wishes. The suggestions in this paper act as advice to Joe based on the Irish Family Law and the Succession Act of 1965. The case of Paula In his Will, John stated: I leave my farm to my niece, Paula, who currently resides in Co. Kerry. On further inquiry, Joe finds out that John did not have a niece named Paula. Instead, his nieces name was Jill, whose mother was Paula. Additionally, neither Jill nor Paula lived in Kerry. These inconsistencies raise two questions. Joe is wondering whether John referred to Jills mother or Jill in his wish. By giving Johns farm to Jill, Joe would have probably denied Jill mother her inheritance as stated by John. Also, by giving the farm to Paula, Joe would likely have denied Jill her inheritance as left by her uncle. Paula was Johns sister, and he could not have confused her for his niece. However, it is likely that John could not remember the name of Paulas daughter although he knew that she had one. Therefore, the most likely scenario is that John wished to leave his farm to Jill, but she could not remember her name out of old age. In his statement, John was clear that he wanted his f arm to go to his niece who he accidentally referred to with her mothers name. I would, therefore, advise Joe to allocate the farm to Jill since she is the most likely designated heiress for this estate. There isnt any possibility of a legal tussle that will ensue if Joe allocates the farm to Jill. Paula, Johns sister, is not likely to contest this offer in a probate court. Joe does not need to consult a lawyer due to the few risks of litigation that may result from his decision. Donation to the Cancer Center A gift may fail where its subject matter is unclear for the court or executor to satisfy the wish. However, the court can deduce what the testator may have wanted by making such an offer and thereby execute the will based on intuition (Ward, 2010). This incident has happened before in the case of Makeown vs. Ardagh. John in his 2012 Will stated the following: I leave the sum of 50,000 to the Cancer Charity in Dublin. The wills executor found out later that there are two Cancer Charity Organizations in Dublin. However, there was a record that John had been giving donations to one of the Cancer Charities. Joe is thus tempted to reason out that John referred to this particular Charity in his will. But it is also possible that John wanted to give the donation to the other Cancer Charity after he was gone since both Charities were doing philanthropic work. The second assumption is not very likely since John had never given his money to another Cancer Charity in Dublin apart from the Irish Cancer Cociety. In this matter, I would advise Joe to offer 50,000 to the Irish Cancer Society The Case of Mary Smith Another challenge that Joe is facing in the execution of Johns will is the problem of non-existent property. In his second statement, John ordered the executor to give the deceaseds car and some money to a person by the name of Mary Smith as a token of appreciation for the care that she offered John during his last days. Joe is informed that John knew of two people who were named Mary Smith. One of the people who went by this name was a woman who cooked for John in her ailing years. The other person is the first womans daughter, although John does not have any information that she took care of him in any way. Therefore, it is prudent for Joe to fulfill Johns wish by giving the said gifts to Mary Smith senior. This statement has another problem. John drafted his will in 2012 while he still owned a car. By the time of his death, this car was no longer in Johns possession. According to Ward (2010), this car falls under the Gifts that Fail section of the Succession Act of 1965. Article 3 75 (a) (c) of the Act states that ademption by extinction may occur if the gift in question does not exist at the time of the death of the testator (Keatin, 2016). In this case, I would advise Joe to give 10,000 to Mary Smith senior as Johns appreciation for her care. Joe should also tell Smith that John had offered his car to her, although the gift could not take effect since it was not present at the time of Johns death. Residuary Clause Since there is no residuary clause attached to the will, John will consult the Succession Act, 1965 to determine how the remaining estate will be subdivided. For this matter, John is assumed to be intestate. At this point, Joe believes that John was not succeeded by any spouse or children. According to the law, Johns estate should be inherited by his parents, although he is not survived by any. Also, John does not have any living brothers or sisters. The people that are next in the succession line are Johns nieces and nephews. According to the law, Johns remaining estate will be subdivided equally among Steve and Nancy. His first cousin Fred and Nancys daughter are not entitled to any inheritance. Fred could only be a candidate to inheritance if he were the only relative alive. Mary, Nancys daughter, cannot receive any inheritance since her mother has already received a gift from John. Before making this judgment, Joe should first investigate whether John has a legally recognized spo use. The Case of Mary Murphy On further probing, Joe realized that John had a legally binding affair with a man named Mary Murphy. This fact is ascertained by the discovery of a marriage certificate in Johns house. Joe believes that Mary Murphy did not spend any time with John, and the couple did not have any children. John did not mention of Mary Murphy in his Will, and there is no document to show that Mary is exempt from Johns inheritance. Therefore, there is a possibility that Mary will appear later to claim his legal right share as a married spouse. The Succession Act of 1965 Article 376 states that a spouse is entitled to half of the testators estate if the couple had no children. However, Article 380 of the same Act precludes a spouse from inheriting any estate if they had deserted the testator for two or more years before the latters death (Keatin, 2016). I advise Joe to ignore Mary Murphy since she has no right under the law to claim any share of Johns estate. References Keatin A. Succession Law in Ireland: Principles, Cases and Commentary. Clarus Press Ward, P. (2010). Family Law in Ireland. Kluwer Law International.

Monday, October 21, 2019

How to Study Archaeology in High School

How to Study Archaeology in High School Although Archaeology isnt offered in every high school, there are lots of relevant subjects to study: history of all kinds, anthropology, religions of the world, geography, civics and economics, biology, botany, chemistry, physics, languages, computer classes, math and statistics, even business classes. All of these courses and a host of others will help you when you start your formal education in archaeology; in fact, the information in these courses will probably help you even if you decide not to go into archaeology. Choose relevant electives. They are presents given to you for free by the school system, and theyre usually taught by teachers who love their subjects. A teacher who loves her/his subject is a great teacher, and that is great news for you. Beyond that, there are several things you can do to practice skills youll need in archaeology. Write All the Time One of the most crucial skills any scientist can have is the ability to express him/herself well. Write in a journal, write letters, write on little scraps of paper you find lying around. Work on your descriptive powers. Practice describing simple everyday objects around you, even: cell phone, book, DVD, tree, tin can, or whatever is nearest you. You dont have to describe what its used for, necessarily, but what is the texture like, what is its overall shape, what color is it. Use a thesaurus, just pack your descriptions with words. Sharpen Your Visual Skills Buildings are perfect for this. Find an older building- it doesnt have to be terribly old, 75 years or more would be fine. If it is old enough, the house you live in works perfectly. Look at it closely and try to see if you can tell what might have happened to it. Are there scars from old renovations? Can you tell if a room or a window sill was painted a different color once? Is there a crack in the wall? Is there a bricked-up window? Is there a stain on the ceiling? Is there a staircase that goes nowhere or a doorway thats permanently shut? Try to figure out what happened. Visit an Archaeological Dig Call up the local university in town- the anthropology department in the states and Canada, the archaeology or ancient history departments in other parts of the world. See if theyre running an excavation this summer, and see if you can visit. Many of them would be happy to give you a guided tour. Talk to People and Join Clubs People are a terrific resource that all archaeologists use, and you need to recognize that and practice it. Ask someone you know who is older than you or from a different place to describe their childhood. Listen and think about how alike or different your lives have been so far, and how that might have affected the way you both think about things. Join the local archaeology or history club. You dont have to be a professional to join them, and they usually have student rates to join that are pretty cheap. Lots of towns, cities, states, provinces, regions have societies for people who are interested in archaeology. They publish newsletters and magazines and often schedule meetings where you can go hear talks by archaeologists, or even offer training courses for amateurs. Books and Magazines Subscribe to an archaeology magazine, or go read them in the public library. There are several excellent public archaeology outlets where you can learn about how archaeology works, and the latest copies may very well be in your public library right this minute. Use the library and the Internet for research. Every year, more and more content-oriented websites are produced on the Internet; but the library has a vast array of stuff as well, and it doesnt take a computer to use it. Just for the heck of it, research an archaeological site or culture. Maybe you can use it for a paper in school, maybe not, but do it for you. Nurture Your Curiosity The most important thing for any student in any discipline is to learn all the time. Start learning for yourself, not just for school or for your parents or for some possible job in the future. Take every opportunity that comes along, investigate and sharpen your curiosity about the world and the way it works. That is how you become any kind of a scientist: Be excessively curious.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Instance Variables in Ruby

Instance Variables in Ruby Instance variables begin with an at sign () and can be referenced only within class methods. They differ from local variables in that they dont exist within any particular scope. Instead, a similar variable table is stored for each instance of a class. Instance variables live within a class instance, so as long as that instance stays alive, so will the instance variables. Instance variables can be referenced in any method of that class. All methods of a class use the same instance variable table, as opposed to local variables where each method will have a different variable table. It is possible to access instance variables without first defining them, however. This will not raise an exception, but the variables value will be nil and a warning will be issued if youve run Ruby with the -w switch. This example demonstrates the use of instance variables. Note that the shebang contains the -w switch, which will print warnings should they occur. Also, note the incorrect usage outside of a method in the class scope. This is incorrect and discussed below. #!/usr/bin/env ruby -wclass TestClass # Incorrect! test monkey def initialize value 1337 end def print_value # OK puts value end def uninitialized # Technically OK, generates warning puts monkey endendt TestClass.newt.print_valuet.uninitialized Why is the test variable incorrect? This has to do with scope and how Ruby implements things. Within a method, the instance variable scope refers to the particular instance of that class. However, in the class scope (inside the class, but outside of any methods), the scope is the class instance scope. Ruby implements the class hierarchy by instantiating Class objects, so there is a second instance at play here. The first instance is an instance of the Class class, and this is where test will go. The second instance is the instantiation of TestClass, and this is where value will go. This gets a bit confusing, but just remember to never use instance_variables outside of methods. If you need class-wide storage, use class_variables, which can be used anywhere in the class scope (inside or outside of methods) and will behave the same. Accessors You normally cannot access instance variables from outside of an object. For instance, in the above example, you cannot simply call t.value or t.value to access the instance variable value. This would break the rules of encapsulation. This also applies to instances of child classes, they cannot access instance variables belonging to the parent class even though theyre technically the same type. So, in order to provide access to instance variables, accessor methods must be declared. The following example demonstrates how accessor methods can be written. However, note that Ruby provides a shortcut and that this example only exists to show you how the accessor methods work. Its generally not common to see accessor methods written in this way unless some sort of additional logic is needed for the accessor. #!/usr/bin/env rubyclass Student def initialize(name,age) name, age name, age end # Name reader, assume name cant change def name name end # Age reader and writer def age age end def age(age) age age endendalice, 17)# Its Alices birthdayalice.age 1puts Happy birthday #{}, \youre now #{alice.age} years old! The shortcuts make things a bit easier and more compact. There are three of these helper methods. They must be run in the class scope (inside the class but outside of any methods), and will dynamically define methods much like the methods defined in the above example. Theres no magic going on here, and they look like language keywords, but they really are just dynamically defining methods. Also, these accessors typically go at the top of the class. That gives the reader an instant overview of which member variables will be available outside the class or to child classes. There are three of these accessor methods. They each take a list of symbols describing the instance variables to be accessed. attr_reader - Define reader methods, such as the name method in the above example.attr_writer - Define writer methods such as the age method in the above example.attr_accessor - Define both reader and writer methods. #!/usr/bin/env rubyclass Student attr_reader :name attr_accessor :age def initialize(name,age) name, age name, age endendalice, 17)# Its Alices birthdayalice.age 1puts Happy birthday #{}, \youre now #{alice.age} years old! When to use Instance Variables Now that you know what instance variables are, when do you use them? Instance variables should be used when they represent the state of the object. A students name and age, their grades, etc. They shouldnt be used for temporary storage, thats what local variables are for. However, they could possibly be used for temporary storage between method calls for multi-stage computations. However if youre doing this, you may want to rethink your method composition and make these variables into method parameters instead.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

ANY Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

ANY - Coursework Example However, proper tool selection is a critical and a difficult undertaking. The methodology defines specific deliverables and artifacts that are created for the purpose of maintaining an application. The programming languages also known as codes are used to instruct the computer to perform certain tasks. Therefore, the programmer must complete the objective of making the language easy to comprehend and efficient in the sense that few instructions are written to complete the required task. It is significant to note that the languages range from first-generation to fifth-generation languages. However, these languages are set by ANSI and ISO which guarantee program portability among operating systems and application programs (Systems Architecture Sixth Edition Chapter 10 25). In the compilation process, the program editor ensures that input is from the programmer, program, template or both. The output also referred to the source code should be partial or complete. The output is stored in a file and the file is named to indicate its functionality as well as the programming language. Therefore, the compiler checks syntax errors, translates code into instructions and generates CPU instructions among other instruction (Systems Architecture Sixth Edition Chapter 10). Most importantly, the compiler completes data declaration, data operation, control structures and functions which include subroutine calls. Link editing is also carried out by the link editor and searches for external function calls in the compiler library. Link editing is either dynamic or static. In addition, interpreters are part and puzzle of the software development lifecycle. They interleave source code translation, foresee link editing and execution. After interpreting, symbolic debugging is carried out. It refers to the use of an automated tool for testing executable programs. This is enhanced through the use of symbol

Friday, October 18, 2019

What is Needed to become an excellent Entrepreneur Essay

What is Needed to become an excellent Entrepreneur - Essay Example 5- Be Confident: Confidence is a key to success. Confidence holds a vital importance in becoming a successful person, entrepreneur and a good salesperson. Confidence gives a person the art of speaking confidently without any fear. Therefore, it is important to understand that a salesperson should be confident enough to persuade his customers. 6- Make Observations: It is important for a salesperson or a marketer to develop thorough observations regarding the personal choice or the interests of the buyers. Observations add to a person’s experience and understanding of even the minute details. 7- Know the Market: One should know about his market and products. Without the knowledge of market and products, a salesperson cannot convey proper information to the customers or the buyers. Four valuable elements: 1- The Spin Selling Skills: The spin selling skills revolve around the classic selling techniques that can help a salesperson to boost his business. The spin selling skills incl uding analysis of the situation collecting observations and developing the understanding of the problems .Spin selling skill also include asking the questions related to the situation of the problem ,how to implement the hurt and rescue approach that may drive the buyer towards your business and the products. It is also important for a skilled salesperson to understand demands and needs of his buyer which makes them realize that ‘buyer is important his salesperson’. 2- Farmers and Hunters Theory: In this theory it has been described that a salesperson should know and act according to his role either he is acting as a hunter who is trying to generate leads for the business or he is performing the role of a farmer which generates his business opportunities from existing...Seven things that I have learnt in class: My learning during my course of studies will help me to become an excellent entrepreneur, a good marketer or an experienced salesperson in the future. I cannot u ndermine the value of the most important things that I have learnt during the class and from the course books that I have read. This would not only develop a better understanding of how and what I should do but it will also help me to develop and implement better business strategies in future. These are: 1.Situation and Problem Analysis 2.Develop Reasoning and Question 3.Add value and experience to your product 4.Be Persuasive 5.Be Confident 6.Make Observations 7.Know the Market Three Important Items to Use as Basic Skills: 1.To know the needs of a buyer 2.To Develop Reasoning and Questioning with the Client 3.To be confident It is important for a salesperson to develop all the necessary skills that may help him to be good and effective salesman in order to expand his business and to develop a strong relation with his clients. These skills and my learning during studies will help me to develop a better understanding of how to analyze the situation, how to overcome problems, how to develop reasoning with logic and conscience and how to implement the better strategies to gain better results. These few things are essential for every salesperson and a marketer to know in order to expand his business and to gain success over his competitors without any hassles or fear.

Critique on the Article, An Anorexic's Recovery. by Leanna Rutherford Lab Report

Critique on the Article, An Anorexic's Recovery. by Leanna Rutherford - Lab Report Example According to Rutherford, she "was 17 and in her [my] graduating year of high school when she [I] decided that she [I] wanted to lose weight" (n.p.). Studies show that mostly, adolescent young women are affected by this mental illness. And women are more prone than men; although, in some cases men can also be a candidate for this disorder. American Psychiatric Association viewed this as a psychological disorder affecting mainly young women (American Psychiatric Association, 1984) and recent reports suggest a long-term increasing incidence of the problem (Lucas, 1991; Lucas et al., 1991; Willi & Grossman, 1983). The article, "An Anorexic's Recovery" is a timely way of informing people/readers of this lethal psychological disorder through the experience of the writer on this illness. As a narrative article, the point of views of the writer was emphasized on her accounts of battling the mental disorder. The worst part of anorexia is the determination of factors that causes the disorder. Until now, there is no exact cause of anorexia nervosa. However, researchers on the field of medicine and psychology suggested that factors in general could be categorized as follows: Cultural Pressure - Just like in the case of Rutherford, cultural pressure played as the main role why she suffered from anorexia. . Rutherford "wanted to impress the boys in university and she [I] thought being thin would help. So she [I] went on a diet"(n.p.). (eHealthMD, 2005) claimed that "in many societies, being extremely thin is the standard of beauty for women and represents success, happiness, and self-control.(p.3). Cultural pressure seems to be the primary cause of why some suffer from this mental disorder. In the article, this was the only cause stated; however, below you can see that not only cultural pressure is to be blamed but other factors as well. Psychological Issues - People who have low self-esteem, poor body image, rigid thinking patterns, perfectionism, feelings of ineffectiveness, physical or sexual abuse, and need for control are prone on developing anorexia. Psychological imbalances may be a by-factor of having the disorder. Rutherford's case may seem to imply that she may have suffered from the need of being perfect, although the writer projected that being good in school or things he did imply that he is psychologically stable: "I was an honors student when I entered university and had an 82 percent average after my first semester. I had made lots of friends and had balanced my social and academic obligations". In view points of psychology, anorexia is a mental illness and therefore has a lot to do with psychological issues. Rutherford may have overlooked this issue on his article. Family Environment - Some family upbringings may be factors to the development of anorexia. The families of people who have the disorder are more expected to be rigid, overprotective, and suffocating closeness. In these situations, anorexia nervosa builds up as a way of fighting back for individuality and independence. Genetic Factors - According to (Wade,, 2000) "anorexia shares a genetic risk with clinical depression" (p.157). People who have

Gay Marriage Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Gay Marriage - Essay Example It is relevant to take into account views of both antagonists and proponents of gay marriage. For example, Laura Kipnis claims that gay marriage is a logical continuation of relations among gay couples. Their emotional and psychological conditions should be united in the name of happiness. Moreover, gay marriage is often misperceived by the society, because attention is paid to sexual and intimate relations, but this type of relations is not considered as an option of adoption. There are a lot of orphans throughout the world and if there is a chance to provide those poor children with parents, why to take this option away from them? Analysis and Evaluation Jullian Rayfield gave a prompt answer to the question of gay marriage legalization. The article of the author named â€Å"New York State Senate Passes Marriage Equality Bill† (24 June, 2011) considers background information and reactions for gay marriage in the State of New York. Many years have passed since the first time g ays made an attempt to protect their rights and initiated a struggle for their love. Currently, gay marriage was legalized in the New York State Senate and this fact should be considered as victory of gays of America. This struggle occurred on the political background, though this issue is of a social and individual nature. Gay community received support from some political parties and it shows that modern politicians are open-minded and are ready for changes and blurring of limits of the modern society. Republicans supported legalization of gay marriage, because they would undermine democratic principles of their policies. It is possible to claim that harmonious society depends on harmonious members, happy individuals, which have a chance to live their lives with their beloved persons. Why not to have a child in the families of this type? As a rule, gays are loving parents and there are no objective reasons for preventing them from being parents. There are evident changes in the mo dern society and the institute of marriage reflects these changes as well. Heterosexual marriage has changed and the role of women is different from the one they had in the beginning of the 20th century. Gay marriage as a new social institution is still unstable, but it is possible to argue that this social phenomenon has a chance to survive in the modern society. Nevertheless, the fact that gay marriage is negatively accepted in the modern society cannot be denied. Thus, Bidstrup is focused on morality of gay marriage. There are many social stereotypes, which have been developed in the society for many years and gay marriage is often positioned as a morally perverted phenomenon, which is not appropriate even for the modern diverse society. This fact can be explained by considerations of gay marriage in emotional context, where the main emphasis is made on intimate and sexual relations of gays and not on their social roles (Bawr, 1994). Gays are perceived as abnormal or deviant indi viduals, which reach their satisfaction in a perverse manner. It is better to discuss an option of gay marriage as a socially beneficial phenomenon, when two beloved persons are able to contribute much to the development of the community and of the society as well. Moreover, gay marriage and adoption of children should be considered as socially favorable phenomena, because both these factors will create atmosphere of tolerance, patience and understanding in the society. It is possible to

Thursday, October 17, 2019

The World in my image Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The World in my image - Research Paper Example It is not for nothing then that there exist several international bodies, of which almost all countries of the world belong to one of them or the other. Because of the need to ensuring that national decisions made conform to international principles and standards, policy makers have a great deal of task to learn when it comes to meeting the said standards and principle in the formulation and implementation of national policies. It is for this reason that the need to study international systems to have a fairer idea of the present image of the international system should always be a priority to policy makers. In the present essay therefore, an academic perspective is given of the current world image when it comes to international systems. Such analysis of the current international system would influence decision making at the national and international levels for policy makers. Overview of the International System The term international system is greatly influenced by behaviorism in t hat the personal systems of human behavior have led to the various theories of international system, being organized into two major components or perspectives. These perspectives are foreign-policy perspective and international-system-analysis perspective (Britannica, 2012). Some of the key theories that make up the foreign policy perspective are how individual states are governed and categories. Under this, mention can be made of some key categorization of individual States such as democratic nations and dictatorship States. At the foreign policy level therefore, nations are better viewed as individual states that have the freedom to operate from very individualistic viewpoints without having to think about the need to conform of strict international standards (Gilpin, 2002). This is indeed where the subject of total sovereignty comes in. At the international system analysis perspective or level however, there are major theories that deals with how nations interact with each other. This perspective or level has been considered to be a major binding necessity as no individual nation can proof to be so independent that it would not need to interact with other nations in one way or the other to get basic social and economic support. At the international system analysis level, the capacities of individual nations are considered in the relations but the essential factor is that each nation is supposed to operate within a confined specification of regulations and conduct. Structure and nature of the contemporary international system According to Dessler et al (1997), the best description that can be given to the structure and nature of the international system is and â€Å"organization of units that emerges spontaneously from their interaction.† It could be seen that the description put forth by Dessler et al (1997) is directly rooted in the two perspectives of international system discussed earlier. This is because at the discrete level, States interact wit h themselves and as a result of their interactions, which are often influenced by the foreign policy perspective, an interaction is developed. Subsequently, the interaction gives birth to the international system analysis perspective and finally forms of the structure of the international system, which according to Waltz (2010), when formed â€Å"cannot be controlled by the discrete units from which it was first formed.† In effect, the structure of

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Letter discussing favorite person in history Essay

Letter discussing favorite person in history - Essay Example Consequently, he warned that he was going to retaliate to violence with the appropriate force meant to instill permanent solution. His resolution prompted him to lead the end of servitude US, which was on 16Th April 1862. This expanded and implemented the policies of what most Americans currently see as their core national values in terms of liberty and equality. On April 12, 1861 at 4.30 a.m., there was commencement of civil war begun. This began after Gen. Pierre Beauregard opened fire in S. Carolina, specifically at the Charleston harbour on Fort Sumter. This bombardment persisted for approximately over 30 hours but ended with the giving in of the Fort by Robert Anderson. This led to the loosing of stars and stripes, whereas stars and bars triumphed. On April 15th, Lincoln called for over 70,000 people out of their wish join and serve in the military for ninety days with the intention of retaliating Southern challenge. Consequently, this led to the assertion of Emancipation by Lincoln in September 1862, which was after the Union Army at Battle of Antietam defeated the Confederates. He warned if by January 1, 1863 the bombardment had not came an ended, this would adversely affect Emancipation meant to be granted to Union whose intention encompassed halting servitude in all defiant states. Lincoln deemed the only way to settle it was by using appropriate and equal force. In the following weeks, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina, states then having many people in the southern region joined the Confederacy after pulling out from the Union. Since Lincoln was the commander in chief, he was responsible for how the war was going to be conducted. The union was saved by Lincoln’s strong presidency. His presiding over the American Civil War, established the nation as one and indivisible On January 1, 1863, he issued the Emancipation Proclamation. This was move meant to emancipate slaves that provided the most convincing illustration of

The World in my image Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The World in my image - Research Paper Example It is not for nothing then that there exist several international bodies, of which almost all countries of the world belong to one of them or the other. Because of the need to ensuring that national decisions made conform to international principles and standards, policy makers have a great deal of task to learn when it comes to meeting the said standards and principle in the formulation and implementation of national policies. It is for this reason that the need to study international systems to have a fairer idea of the present image of the international system should always be a priority to policy makers. In the present essay therefore, an academic perspective is given of the current world image when it comes to international systems. Such analysis of the current international system would influence decision making at the national and international levels for policy makers. Overview of the International System The term international system is greatly influenced by behaviorism in t hat the personal systems of human behavior have led to the various theories of international system, being organized into two major components or perspectives. These perspectives are foreign-policy perspective and international-system-analysis perspective (Britannica, 2012). Some of the key theories that make up the foreign policy perspective are how individual states are governed and categories. Under this, mention can be made of some key categorization of individual States such as democratic nations and dictatorship States. At the foreign policy level therefore, nations are better viewed as individual states that have the freedom to operate from very individualistic viewpoints without having to think about the need to conform of strict international standards (Gilpin, 2002). This is indeed where the subject of total sovereignty comes in. At the international system analysis perspective or level however, there are major theories that deals with how nations interact with each other. This perspective or level has been considered to be a major binding necessity as no individual nation can proof to be so independent that it would not need to interact with other nations in one way or the other to get basic social and economic support. At the international system analysis level, the capacities of individual nations are considered in the relations but the essential factor is that each nation is supposed to operate within a confined specification of regulations and conduct. Structure and nature of the contemporary international system According to Dessler et al (1997), the best description that can be given to the structure and nature of the international system is and â€Å"organization of units that emerges spontaneously from their interaction.† It could be seen that the description put forth by Dessler et al (1997) is directly rooted in the two perspectives of international system discussed earlier. This is because at the discrete level, States interact wit h themselves and as a result of their interactions, which are often influenced by the foreign policy perspective, an interaction is developed. Subsequently, the interaction gives birth to the international system analysis perspective and finally forms of the structure of the international system, which according to Waltz (2010), when formed â€Å"cannot be controlled by the discrete units from which it was first formed.† In effect, the structure of

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

How duration affects the rate of electrolysis in a Voltaic Cell Essay Example for Free

How duration affects the rate of electrolysis in a Voltaic Cell Essay Design and Conduct an experiment to investigate the effect of ONE FACTOR on redox reactions. Introduction:- The two main components of redox reactions are reduction and oxidation. Reduction is a gain in electrons and the decrease in oxidation number whereas oxidation is the loss of electrons and the increase in oxidation number. Voltaic cells, also known as galvanic cells generate their own electricity. The redox reaction in a Voltaic cell is a spontaneous reaction. For this reason, voltaic cells are commonly used as batteries. Voltaic cell reactions supply energy which is used to perform work. The energy is harnessed by situating the oxidation and reduction reactions in separate containers, joined by an apparatus (known as the salt bridge which primarily completes a circuit and maintains electrical neutrality) that allows electrons to flow. The functions of a voltaic cell are quite simple. There happens to be an anode and a cathode. The positive ions go the negative electrode (anode) whereas the negative ions go to the positive electrode (cathode). Electrons always flow from the anode (where oxidation takes place) to the cathode (where reduction takes place). Electrons flow across wires whereas ions flow across the electrolyte and the salt bridge. Aim:- The objective of this experiment is to see how the time affects the mass of the zinc electrode (anode) and the copper electrode (cathode) in a voltaic cell. Variables:- Variable Type of variable How it will be controlled Time (s) Independent (The one you change) Values from 5 to 35 minutes will be used Mass of anode cathode (g) Dependent (The one you measure) Electrodes will be measured after each time interval Current (A) Controlled Measure the current with the help on an ammeter Initial mass of cathode and anode (g) Controlled Weigh out the electrodes using top pan balance from the beginning of the experiment Charge on ion Controlled Use the same solution for all the trials. The charge on the copper ion should be 2+ since the copper 2+ is being converted to copper metal. The charge on the zinc ion should be 0 because Zn is being converted to Zn 2+ Concentration of electrolyte Controlled Use the same solution for all the trials. The solution primarily should be 1 mol dm-3 (just like standard conditions) Area of electrodes (cm2) Controlled Measure the electrodes to ensure they have the same dimensions (92.5cm). Use the same electrodes for all the trials. Volume of electrolyte (cm3) Controlled Use a measuring cylinder to measure out the electrolytes volume Atmosphere which we are working under Controlled Primarily we are working under standard room temperature of 298 K Apparatus:- * 122.5cm2 copper electrode * 122.5cm2 zinc electrode * 100cm3 1mol dm-3 Zinc sulphate solution * 100cm3 1mol dm-3 copper (II) sulphate solution * Filter paper (required to create a salt bridge) * 100cm3 of potassium nitrate solution (the spectator ion which I will require for creating the salt bridge which will complete the circuit and maintain electrical neutrality) * 2x200cm3 beakers * Stopwatch (à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.01s) * 1x100cm3 measuring cylinder (à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½1.0cm3) * Voltmeter * 2 connecting wires * Top pan balance (à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.01g) Method:- 1) Set up the voltaic cell. Use a measuring cylinder to measure out 100cm3 of copper sulphate solution. Pour it into the 200 cmà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ beaker. 2) Next do the same for zinc sulphate. Use a measuring cylinder to help measure out 100cm3 of zinc sulphate solution. Pour it into a different 200 cmà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ beaker. 3) Weigh the masses of the electrodes separately using a top pan balance. Record the initial masses. 4) Connect the wires to the outlets in the zinc and copper electrode. Place them in the corresponding outlets of the voltmeter. 5) After that we cut out some filter paper and dip that into our spectator ion (potassium nitrate) in order to build a salt bridge. The salt bridge will primarily complete the circuit, allow flow of ions and maintain electrical neutrality. The salt bridge will be placed in such a way that the ends of the salt bridge will be touching separate solutions of zinc sulphate and copper sulphate. The overall circuit should resemble the diagram in Figure.1. 6) Place the zinc electrode into the beaker with the zinc sulphate solution and the copper electrode into the beaker with the copper sulphate solution and at the same time, start the stopwatch. Keep the stopwatch running until 200 seconds elapse. *Note- we will be recording the time every 5 minutes because 1 or 2 minutes simply isnt enough for the change to take place 7) Take the cathode out of the solution and measure its mass (remember, before doing so, shake it a couple of times in order to remove any moisture). Record the mass. Do the same for the zinc electrode 8) Place the electrodes into their respective solutions once again and start timing. Repeat steps 5 to 6 9) Repeat the same steps until we get mass readings for up to 60 minutes of experimenting. Data Collection and Processing Raw data:- Initial mass of anode (zinc electrode): 31.29 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.01g Initial mass of cathode (copper electrode): 32.05 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.01g Table 1 Mass of anode and cathode obtained from different time intervals Duration of electrolysis (à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.21s) Mass of anode (zinc electrode) (à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.01g) Mass of cathode (copper electrode) (à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.01g) 300.00 (5 minutes) 31.27 32.08 600.00 (10 minutes) 31.14 32.16 900.00 (15 minutes) 31.08 32.27 1200.00 (20 minutes) 31.00 32.42 1500.00 (25 minutes) 30.83 32.49 1800.00 (30 minutes) 30.61 32.80 2100.00 (35 minutes) 30.25 33.08 Qualitative observations:- We can see that the copper is deposited at the cathode where the cathode begins to get more pink/ brownish colour. Blue colour of copper sulphate solution begins to get paler. Zinc electrode begins to corrode a bit. Most corrosion can be observed at 35 minutes time interval. Note* Uncertainties: The average reaction time was à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.5s even though it did alter from interval to interval. Note that there is also a à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.01s time uncertainty in the stopwatch itself. The uncertainty for mass is inscribed on the top pan balance as well. Data Processing: We must now calculate the mass changes which have taken place due to experimenting with different time intervals. (Different time intervals would result in a different mass change) This can be calculated simply by doing the following: Mass change = final mass initial mass Due note however that this formula can only be used for calculating the mass change taking place at the cathode (copper electrode where reduction takes place). This is because copper 2+ is being converted to copper metal and is being deposited at the cathode. Obviously this would result in a mass gain at the cathode. Therefore, it would be better for us to use the formula Mass change = final mass initial mass so that it gives us a positive value for the mass change taking place at the cathode. Example 1 Mass change = final mass initial mass = 32.08 32.05 = 0.03g Example 2 Now to calculate the mass change taking place at the anode (zinc electrode), we use the following formula, Mass change = initial mass- final mass. In this case we use this formula because we know that the zinc is being oxidized to zinc 2+ leading the zinc electrode to corrode. This therefore results in a decrease in mass of the anode (zinc electrode). Thus, it would be better for us to use the formula Mass change = initial mass final mass so that it gives us a positive value for the mass change taking place at the anode. Mass change = initial mass final mass = 31.29 31.27 = 0.02 Table 2 -Mass changes of anode and cathode for each time interval Time (à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.21s) Mass change of Anode (Zinc electrode)(à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.01g) Mass change of cathode (copper electrode) (à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.01g) 300.00 (5 minutes) 0.02 0.03 600.00 (10 minutes) 0.15 0.11 900.00 (15 minutes) 0.21 0.22 1200.00 (20 minutes) 0.29 0.37 1500.00 (25 minutes) 0.46 0.44 1800.00 (30 minutes) 0.68 0.75 2100.00 (35 minutes) 1.04 1.03 Graph 1:- Graph 2:- To derive the equation for the two separate reactions, the number of electrons gained or lost during the process has to be deduced. The mass change per minute can be deduced from the gradient. Therefore we first calculate the gradient of graph 1 (mass changes for zinc electrode). For calculating the gradient, find two points which perfectly fits in the grid. In this case, the points (0.04. 100) and (0.08, 200) Gradient= (Y2 Y1) à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ (X2 X1) = (0.08- 0.04) à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ (200 100) = (0.04) à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ (100) = 0.0004 Therefore, the gradient of the first graph is 0.0002. So the mass change per minute for the anode is 0.0004. Next, we calculate the gradient of graph 2 (mass changes for copper electrode). To find the gradient, we work with the points (0.20. 500) and (0.24, 700) Gradient= (Y2 Y1) à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ (X2 X1) = (700 500) à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ (0.24- 0.20) = (200) à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ (0.04) = 0.0002 Therefore, the gradient of the first graph is 0.0002. So the mass change per minute for the cathode is 0.0002. The uncertainties also need to be propagated through the summation of the fractional uncertainties. Uncertainties regarding zinc electrode:- Fractional uncertainty of mass = absolute uncertainty à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ actual value = 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.02 = 0.500 Fractional uncertainty of time = absolute uncertainty à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ actual value = 0.21 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 300 = 0.0007 = 0.001 Total uncertainty = 0.001 + 0.500 = 0.501 to 3 decimal places Therefore the rate of change is 0.004 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.501 g/s Table 3 Rate of change for each time interval for anode (zinc electrode) Time (à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.21s) Rate of change of anode (zinc electrode) (g/s) 60.00 0.004à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.501 120.00 0.004à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.067 180.00 0.004à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.048 240.00 0.004à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.035 300.00 0.004à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.022 360.00 0.004à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.015 420.00 0.004à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.001 To calculate the number of electrons in zinc electrode, the following equation may be used:- Number of electrons = molar mass à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ mass of electrode (mass of one of the samples) = 65.37 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 31.27 = 2.09 Therefore, this would be the half-equation which would occur at the cathode: Zn Zn2.09+ + 2.09e- Due to the loss in a bit more electrons compared to the theoretical formula, it would be a stronger reducing agent therefore the electrode potential would be lower (more negative) than that of the original value. Nevertheless, the electrode potential cannot be determined. Uncertainties regarding copper electrode:- Fractional uncertainty of mass = absolute uncertainty à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ actual value = 0.01 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.03 = 0.333 Fractional uncertainty of time = absolute uncertainty à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ actual value = 0.21 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 300 = 0.0007 = 0.001 Total uncertainty = 0.001 + 0.333= 0.334 to 3 decimal places Therefore the rate of change is 0.002 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0.334 g/s Table 3 Rate of change for each time interval for cathode (copper electrode) Time (à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.21s) Rate of change of cathode (copper electrode) (g/s) 60.00 0.002à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.334 120.00 0.002à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.091 180.00 0.002à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.046 240.00 0.002à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.027 300.00 0.002à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.023 360.00 0.002à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.013 420.00 0.002à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.010 To calculate the number of electrons in copper electrode, the following equation may be used:- Number of electrons = molar mass à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ mass of electrode (mass of one of the samples) = 65.50 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 32.08 = 2.04 Therefore, this would be the half-equation which would occur at the cathode: Cu2.04+ + 2.04e- Cu Due to the gain of a bit more electrons compared to the theoretical formula, it would be a slightly weaker oxidizing agent therefore the electrode potential would be slightly lower than that of the original value. Nevertheless, the electrode potential cannot be determined. Conclusion My results show that as the duration/ time intervals increase, the mass of the anode (zinc electrode) decreases and the mass of the cathode (copper electrode) increases. We can see that there is a strong positive correlation between the time it takes for both electrodes to change in masses. If the duration is longer, then more electrons flow from the zinc electrode to the copper electrode (anode to cathode) through the electrical wires, while ions flow through the salt bridge to complete. As we know, in a voltaic cell/ galvanic cell, oxidation occurs at the anode (negative electrode) where as reduction occurs at the cathode (positive electrode). Primarily, zinc is oxidized at the anode and converted to zinc 2+. This causes corrosion at the zinc electrode due to the metal being converted to ions thus the mass of the zinc electrode (anode) decreases. On the other hand, copper undergoes reduction at the cathode and the copper 2+ ions get converted to copper metal. This causes the copper metal to be deposited at the cathode thus leading to the copper electrode (cathode) to increase in mass as the duration is increased. The following anodic reaction takes place at the zinc electrode (this is the theoretical equation):- Zn (s) Zn2+ (aq) + 2e- However the equation we found experimentally is:- Zn Zn2.09+ + 2.09e- Hence, this suggests that since the former zinc sample has more electrons to lose, it is an even stronger oxidizing agent compared to the theoretical equation and is slightly higher in the electrochemical series than the latter zinc samples. According to the results that have been gathered, there is a positive correlation between the time it takes to electrolyse an aqueous solution and the rate of electrolysis. The rate of electrolysis was measured using the mass of cathode. If the duration of electrolysis is longer, then more electrons will flow through the circuit and more ions will flow from the anode to the cathode. Oxidation occurs at the anode whereas reduction occurs at the cathode. The cathode gains electrons therefore the mass decreases. The following reaction has taken place (although this is the theoretical equation): Cu2+ (aq) + 2e- Cu (s) However, the experimental equation is: Cu1.75+ + 1.75e- Cu Therefore this implies that since the former copper sample has more electrons to gain, it is a stronger oxidizing agent and it is lower in the electrochemical series than the latter copper sample. The value of the electrode potential hasnt been calculated, however, the number of electrons is 25% off there that shows that there is a great difference between the literature value and the experimental value. According to the graph in the previous page, there is a very strong positive correlation between the mass change and duration of electrolysis as can be deduced from the high R squared value. The change in mass over a certain period of time is very gradual because of the size of the electrons. Although a lot of electrons are able to flow through the electrolyte, there is not such a drastic change. By looking at the graph, almost all the error bars for the points touch the line of best fit which means the data is fairly accurate. The theoretical mass of a copper electrode would be 31.75g. From the results that have been tabulated, the mass of a copper electrode is 36.21g. The percentage error can be calculated using the following formula: Percentage error = difference x 100 theoretical value = 4.46 x 100 31.75 = 14.04% This shows that although there is not such a big difference between the theoretical value and the experimental value. Evaluation Limitation Type of error Improvement The mass of the anode was not measured therefore the rate of electron transfer between the two electrodes could not be determined. This could have increased or decreased the mass of the cathode. Random Measure the mass of the anode The power pack has internal resistance therefore not all the current was emitted. This could have decreased the current, thus decreasing the number of electrons produced. Random Use a resistor to accurately measure the current The top pan balance had a zero offset error. This could have increased the mass of the cathode. Systematic Use the top pan balance with the 0.001 uncertainty to obtain more accurate values. a