Monday, September 30, 2019

Hispanic/Latino Culture Essay

Hispanics or Latinos are defined as a people of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central American, or other Spanish speaking culture. This term â€Å"Hispanics† was created by the U. S. federal government in the early 1970’s to refer to Americans born in a Spanish speaking nation or with ancestry to Spanish territories. Hispanics people are vibrant, socializing, and fun loving people. Among various facts associated to this culture is that they have a deep sense of involvement in their family traditions and cultures. Hispanics / Latinos have strong non-verbal and verbal ways of communication. To better understand one another they overly rely the use of non-verbal communication. This includes facial expressions, hand and body movements, physical touch, voice pitch, voice sounds, and physical appearances. A Hispanic mother screaming as her child takes their first steps is a type of sound and facial expressions use to show emotion without words. A firm handshake is a common practice between people as greeting and as they leave. A hug and a light kiss on a cheek are also common greetings practices between woman, and men and woman who are close friends or family. Children are also though to practice this ways of greetings to their elders in a way to show respect. Men also hug each other in sign of affection. Making eye contact when being spoken to is also a sign of respect, especially if the person is elder. I remember if my mother was talking to me as a child and I looked away, I was in so much trouble! Non-verbal communication is very important in face-to-face communication also because it shows feelings, intentions, and reactions. In the Hispanic culture respect is highly valued and shown by using formal titles when communicating verbally. Communicating phrases are used daily like â€Å"A sus ordenes† (at your command), â€Å"para servirle a usted† (at your service), â€Å"mi reyna† (my queen), or â€Å"mi rey† ( my king). When it comes to advice, Hispanic families prefer to communicate with their elders because of their experience. For example, when one becomes sick the elder may advice a safe simple home remedy. The Hispanic culture has different values, beliefs, and traditions. Family is highly value. Family is a close-knit group and the most important social group to gather in any events or special days. The Hispanic â€Å"family unit† includes not only parents and children but also grandparents and extended family. Individuals within the family have moral responsibilities to help other members of the family experiencing financial problems, unemployment, health conditions and any other life issues. They show the importance placed upon relationship within their family extending a hand in good times and bad. Respeto y dignidad (respect and dignity) are other important values of the Hispanic culture. Children’s are taught to avoid confrontations with parents and older persons, and to be obedient and respectful. The Hispanics believe that the father is head of the family and the mother is to take care of home. Naming children after grandparents and parents is fairly common. A well-known tradition is the celebration of a fifteen year old girl called Quincenera. Hispanics culture and traditions are based around celebrating and spending time with love ones. Hispanics usually give great importance to and place great value on looks and appearance as a sense of honor, dignity, and pride. Formal attire is commonly used for going to church and all religious celebrations as well as parties, social gatherings, and work, Although this tradition seems less common in Latinos that have been in the USA for a while. Tennis shoes and jeans however are becoming more popular among Hispanic woman particularly in non-formal events. It is very important to know that most Americans who were born in or have ancestry of a Spanish speaking nation see themselves and refer to themselves by their ethnic identity. For example, they prefer usually to be referred as Cuban, Mexican, Colombian, or Puerto Rican, not as Hispanic or Latino. Being a diverse mix of many countries there is no doubt we form the most rich and unique culture growing in the USA.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Much Ado About Nothing Essay

In the play, Much Ado About Nothing, by William Shakespeare, Shakespeare introduces the character Claudio. Count Claudio is characterized as a gullible, naive and immature. Throughout the play, Claudio is placed in situations which reveal his level of maturity. By the end of the play, he is still a carefree, foolish boy who has not come to terms with his own faults-such as almost ruining Hero’s reputation. From the beginning to the end of the play, Claudio exhibits childish behavior, which does not change. Through his depiction of Claudio’s interaction with Hero, Leonato and Benedick, Shakespeare criticizes that in reality, even for people as naive as Claudio, people get what they want because of their status. In the beginning of the play, Don John and Barachio tell Claudio that Hero is being wooed by Don Pedro, and his immediate reaction is to believe that it is true. As Don Pedro agrees to woo Hero for Claudio, it seems to Claudio that Don Pedro is pleading for himself. â€Å"The Prince woos for himself,† he says (2. 1, 172). For Claudio, â€Å"friendship is constant in all other things save in office and affairs of love† (2. 1, 173-174). The nature of â€Å"all is fair in love and war† should warn the reader that Claudio thinks with an old nature about male competition for women. The misunderstanding is soon forgotten when Don Pedro assures Claudio that he was truly wooing Hero for Claudio and not for himself. Claudio takes Hero back and says, â€Å"lady you are mine, I am yours† (2. 1, 301-303). Claudio easily forgives and forgets and makes himself look foolish by taking her back so quickly. His immaturity is revealed by the speed of forgiveness. Shakespeare mocks reality in a sense that even though he acts like a child, a woman like Hero will still â€Å"love† him. However, Claudio does not learn from his rash judgement of Don Pedro. When Don John later accuses Hero for sleeping with another man, Claudio is again quick to think that worst of Hero. Claudio tells Leonato that Hero is a â€Å"rotten orange† (4. 1, 32). By referring to Hero as a piece of rotten fruit, Claudio implies that what was once sweet and pure is now spoiled and lustful. Just as Eve was tempted by fruit in the Garden of Eden that turned out to be evil, Claudio was first attracted and then forced away by the crude Hero. After slandering his daughter, Leonato is more angered at Hero than at Claudio. Even after being so idiotic and stupid, Claudio wins the woman of his dreams: a woman who he scolds and takes him back. At first and before considering other possibilities, Leonato seams to point his finger at Hero for being the one who ruin everything; not Claudio. Considering what happens, it can be inferred that Shakespeare is mocking the idea that men with a status such as Claudio get what they want, even if they make a big mistake such as insulting and ruining a girl’s life. Claudio not only slanders Hero, but Leonato, too. To Leonato’s face, Claudio makes a big show of respecting his age, but it’s clear from this comment that Claudio does not understand what it means to have great respect for someone. Claudio says, â€Å"We had like to have had out two noses snapped off with two old men without teeth† (5. 1, 128-129). Age doesn’t seem to command respect for Claudio; he approaches it more as a weakness than a reason for reverence, which is immature of him. It’s another strike against Claudio’s character, and Shakespeare does this to portray that even when he shows disrespect to someone of high standards, he still gets what he wants in the end. After Claudio slanders Hero, he joins the conversation between Leonato and Leonato’s brother. Claudio immediately insults Leonato by â€Å"fleer[ing] and jest[ing] at [him]† (5. 1, 65). Though Claudio claims that he â€Å"never lay[s] [his] hand upon [his] sword,† Leonato claims that he is â€Å"under privilege of age to brag† (5. 1, 60; 67). By reaching for his sword, Claudio is attempting to intimidate and undermine Leonato to reveal that he is more powerful and a better man than Leonato. However, Leonato knows that it is not true, and he tells Claudio to stop being a fool. The undercut actions of Claudio towards Leonato is a direct way in which Shakespeare reveals his immaturity and disrespect towards his elders. Even though he is disrespectful and cruel to both Leonato and Hero, Leonato allows Claudio to marry his daughter. Claudio’s events with Benedick are also a way in which Shakespeare depicts Claudio to be an immature boy. When Benedick challenges Claudio, he thinks that it is a joke. Benedick tells Claudio that he wants to fight him in a dull, and says to Don Pedro that he should â€Å"give [Benedick] another staff† because â€Å"the last one was broke ‘cross† (5. 1, 151-152). Claudio makes fun of Benedick for looking so angry and for seemingly having lost his ability to wittily reply to his jests. The immaturity among the men by Claudio is to insult the ways of men, and how status is the only thing that matters because, in the end, Claudio gets Beatrice for himself. Benedick finally thanks Don Pedro and informs him that Don John has fled Messina. He then turns to Claudio and tells him they will meet soon to fight. Don Pedro remarks that Benedick â€Å"is in earnest† about his challenge (5. 1, 206). Claudio sarcastically replies that it is â€Å"for the love of Beatrice† (5. , 208). Even after having someone as highly ranked as Don Pedro telling him that Benedick is serious about the dull, and that Don John is responsible for Hero’s â€Å"death,† Claudio makes a sarcastic remark back claiming that he is only fighting for Beatrice and does not think to mention what Benedick says about Don John. His inconsiderate remarks and vagueness of his awareness are both ways of Shakespeare mocking men. The childish antics in Shakespearean times is caused by the young age that men and women are forced to be married at. Claudio, at this point, still has not grown up. Shakespeare uses Claudio to mock that in reality, because of his status and the fact that he is a male, he gets is allowed to marry Hero, without any confrontation of Benedick. Throughout the play, Claudio makes immature mistakes that are used to criticize that in reality, men as stupid as Claudio still get what they want based on status. In life, men tend to have a better status than most women because people base status on sex. Claudio had better treatment than Hero throughout the play with both Leonato and Don Pedro, Prince of Argon. In the end, none of his events with Hero, Benedick, or Leonato come out. The three people also decide to leave him alone without another confrontation. Today, men and women get married at a later age, when they are mature enough to be married. Even so, status definitely plays a major role in society today in a sense that the higher a person’s status, the more likely they will get what they want. That is what Shakespeare is trying to reveal; that in reality, even as long ago as his time, men and women get what they want based on their status in the world.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Effects of steroids on calcium activated potassium channels and Essay

Effects of steroids on calcium activated potassium channels and secretion of LH and FSH in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) - Essay Example The secretion of these hormones by the gonadotropes is in turn mediated by the activity of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) produced by the BPG axis (Borg, 1994). Apart from regulating gametogenesis, these hormones also control steroidogenesis, a process that produces sex steroids involved in moderating gametogenesis (Schulz and Goos, 1999). Another important regulating hormone for the gonadotropins is dopamine, which has been reported as a down regulator in several teleost fish (Borg, 1994). The releasing hormone, GnRH, once produced binds and activates its receptors found on the membrane of the hormone producing cells of the pituitary gland (Bliss, Navratil, Xie, & Roberson, 2010). Contrastingly in teleost, there is a direct innervation of the pituitary gland by GnHR neurons, whereas, in humans and other mammals, the action of GnHR is via neurochemostasis (Mousa & Mousa, 2003). The binding of GnHR to its receptors on the gonadotropes triggers an increase in intracellular calcium ion concentration an action that stimulates the secretion of the hormones by the activated cells. The initial and immediate secretion of the hormones is by exocytosis of hormone vesicles, which is later followed by long term gene transcription to sustain prolonged secretions. The increase in calcium ion concentration is mediated by various mechanisms, such as an influx via voltage-gated channels, and release from intracellular stores. For example, action potentials tend to promote the influx of extracellular calcium ions in voltage-gated calcium ion channels expressing cells. The elevated calcium ions concentration, in the cells activates, calcium activated Potassium channels (CAPC), a pathway that plays a significant role in modulating membrane potentials and thus the electrophysiological effect on hypothalamic releasing hormones (Fettiplace & Fuchs, 1999). CAPCs are

Friday, September 27, 2019

Question Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 12

Question - Essay Example Soon after, a boycott ensued with African American refusing to board buses unless everyone would be treated equally. This boycott has since been documented as a pivotal point for civil rights and contributed a lot to awareness of Rosa Parks. The first reason why the boycott succeeded was as a result of the unity among African Americans as they joined hands and refused to board buses; a move that caused serious economic strains on the Montgomery Bus Company. In addition, there had been rising protest by Africans for nearly a decade with most of them asking for fair treatment although these protests were predominantly reserved. At an earlier time, a student had protested like Rosa did but her case was not taken seriously as it involved assault. The act by Rosa can be viewed as one that instigated a boycott that ended as a success. Economic strains due to the action by African Americans refusal to use buses and an backed up insurgence that resulted due to Rosa’s imprisonment greatly contributed to African Americans enjoying equal privileges with

Thursday, September 26, 2019

World Trade Organization Benefits Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

World Trade Organization Benefits - Assignment Example The past history has seen many wars that erupted due to the hostile feeling for each other that existed between the nations, the element of hostility in the trade and exchange was one of those reasons. After the Second World War, when there was a slight realization of avoiding the atmosphere of trade tension, an international level organization was brought into play which was called General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). W.T.O is a platform that has bridged various nations of the world onto a single platform, it has been in action since 1995, through which they achieve exchange of goods, and material and benefit their own economies as well as the regional economies. It has a pre defined set of rules that are created in the most suitable manner with focus on international peace and trade promotion. The modern world and its citizens have benefited in a considerable amount from this body and it has provided innumerable benefits to the modern industrial era, few of those advantag es and benefits are as follows: Element of peace: The incumbent body in place has made many things possible which would otherwise be not possible. It has given hope for a better world which would be dominated by the peaceful exchange of goods and material, since trade always enables the exchange of good feeling between the two parties, therefore W.T.O in a subsided manner plays the role of peacekeeping and relationship building as well. Trade and exchange opens routes for exploration and harmony. W.T.O while being a very large scale entity has the privilege of bringing about various nations which were long engulfed in chains of hatred and distances. While it was evident in past that many countries could not engage in a bi lateral trade amongst each other due to various reasons, the W.T.O has wiped off that excuse and has engaged many nations in trade relations through means of third party trade and multi lateral exchange on a large scale. The W.T.O provides a platform which in a gen tle manner obliges various nations to start trade which each other regardless of their previous history of disputes and tussles that may have existed in past. History can be dug to find out that many disputes over trade resulted in large scale wars, however on the contrary to that perception; world trade organization provides a platform for resolving all disputed issues pertaining to the trade and exchange. Inclusion of Saudi Arabia: The inclusion of Saudi Arabia is believed to benefit the organization, its partner companies as well as Saudi Arabia itself. For this reason, Saudi Arabia has under gone number of steps that would further ease its process towards the entry into the large international block. Abiding by these laws, it would benefit the Saudi local market and would improve the standard of living and benefit the government, local investors and the citizens. Role of Third party mediator: While some critics may argue that trade and exchange may engulf various nations into di sputes and disagreements, this fear is grounded through the presence of a centralized body in form of W.T.O. It plays the role of mediator and ensures that no party violates the rules or reaches to a level which is unacceptable and beyond the manifesto of the W.T.O accord. W.T.O obliges nations to bring their disputes to the table and strictly prohibits each member from taking any individual action which is against the rules specified. Definition of Rules: An undeniable fact of every business of the world is existence of rules, be it small scale exchange or large scale exchange between two nations or two groups of nations, rules are must for any exchange. The advantage of W.T.O is the fact that it has enabled

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Input and output devices Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Input and output devices - Essay Example Devices that serve as both input device and output device are termed as I/O devices. An example of input device is a keyboard. Using the keypad, a user types the data. A keyboard sends electrical signals to the computer system, which is essentially the input. The computer then interprets the signals so that the results can be displayed in the form of text on a monitor. In this example, the text is output. In an another example, a computer sends data to a printer and it generates a printed paper. Here, computer is the input device whereas printer is the output device. The input and output may vary in their nature and form depending upon the mechanism. For example, when a computer sends information into a printer as signals, the input is digitized information whereas its output is a tangible printed paper. It is important to note that an input device e.g. a mouse or the keyboard of a computer can perform the function of sending information to a computer as input. However, these input devices cannot reproduce or receive any information from the computer as output. It is also noteworthy that the input or output classification of devices is relative to each other. This can be elaborated from the example of a USB inserted in the port of a computer and a lead connecting the computer to a printer. Here, while the computer serves as an output device for the USB in that it generates the signals, the computer plays the role of an input device for the printer because eventually, the text will be printed as output by the printer. A USB flash drive and a CD-RW drive are both examples of I/O devices as both can send as well as receive information from a computer. To conclude, input devices send information into a system whereas output devices generate its results. Some devices can only be either input devices or output devices whereas others can be both. The status of a device as an input device or an output

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Articles Summary Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Articles Summary - Article Example s another 45 days to evaluate the child and it takes another 30 days for the Admission, Review and Dismissal committee to decide whether the child qualifies for special education or not. While writing the request a parent needs to clearly but briefly identify why they believe their child is in need of special education. While addressing this question the parent should outline concerns such as academic problems and the parents even need to clearly state that if the school has implemented any method to help the child, the procedure should not result in decreasing the speed of the review of the child. The IDEA has established that schools can try to help the child before and even when the evolution of the child by the school district is going on. They can help the child through RTI which is designed in order to provide support to those children who are failing to perform well in academics. Once the evaluation of the child is completed an ARD meeting is held in which the parent participates as a member. Once it has been identified by the ARD committee that the child requires special education services, and then the Individual Education Program is developed. After parents have requested for their child to be evaluated, it is the duty of the school district of Texas to provide parents with a document called Notice of Procedural Safeguards and this document contains information about the rights of the parents. If a child is not considered to be evaluated for special education and if a child is not believed to be provided with special education, the parents can get the child evaluated from an independent entity and the expense for this evaluation is paid by the school district. Before a child is provided with special education a parent needs to get the child evaluated by the school district for this form of education. The school district reviews the application of the parents and then decides whether a child is eligible for this form of education or not. The article

Monday, September 23, 2019

Sniffing Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Sniffing - Research Paper Example To Orebaugh, et al (2004), Sniffing fall into the category of wiretapping as it is a form of wiretap installed to computer networks as an alternative of phone networks. The device records the content conversation without the other party consent. Many organizations use this device to fix remote sniffing programs on routers and servers, which in turn, assists in traffic flows. In my opinion, it is illegal for organizations to use sniffer to secret monitor employee activities without their approval. Although it may be done to increase productivity, it is paramount for the other party to approve the activities carried out by the organization. My feeling about sniffer use both by insiders of organizations as well as outsiders is that, it should not occur unless a court order has been issued. It should only be carried when there is parties consent. However, when issued by the court it can be done to access employees input to the organization, and this may be helpful in enhancing productivity and company’s growth. If I would craft a law about packet sniffing, it would ensure that it only done to the parties consent. It would include rules and regulation to follow before using it. A court order would be issued before the devices are attached to the phone or any device. In turn, this would protect employees and clients from harassment and protection against theft. Stevens, G. M., Doyle, C., & Library of Congress. (2009).  Privacy: An overview of federal statutes governing wiretapping and electronic eavesdropping. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research

Sunday, September 22, 2019

External Assignment Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

External Assignment - Research Paper Example Simpson was taken into custody suspected as a murderer (Associated Newspapers Ltd., 2012). The prime objective of this research paper is to review the above described case. Moreover, the research paper will also analyze about how the criminalist in this case handled the evidences and determine whether these were positively or negatively involved in the outcome of the case. In relation to the case of "People of the State of California vs. Orenthal James Simpson,† the forensic experts along with the criminalists gathered evidences specifically through DNA analysis techniques. During those days, DNA evidencing technique was quite popular and regarded as effective tool for law enforcement investigation departments in solving murder related crimes (Saferstein, 2010). The concept of DNA evidencing emerge with the idea that every individual possesses unique DNA structures except in the case of identical twins. DNA evidences can be extracted from multiple sources that include bones of victims, hair strands, teeth, blood and saliva sampling (James, 2012). During the trial of the ‘Orenthal James Simpson’ murder case, the first type of evidence, which came forward was about the DNA fingerprinting. This evidence was brought forward almost a year after the death of ‘Nicole Brown’ and ‘Ronald Goldman’ (Fingerprinting, 20 14). Another law ignorance instance came up in front when Simpson refused to turn himself or surrender as per demanded by the local police forces (Hunt, n. d.). Moreover, through DNA analysis, the blood traces found in the crime scene were also confirmed to be similar to the blood traces found on the door of Simpson’s car (Associated Newspapers Ltd., 2012). Apart from these, the blood on the footprints matched with the shoe size of Mr. Simpson and on other articles found at the crime scene. Adding to this, the prosecution also brought forward the case evidence of a 9-1-1 call made by Simpson’s ex-wife as she

Saturday, September 21, 2019

18th Century English Poetry Essay Example for Free

18th Century English Poetry Essay Eighteenth century poetry consisted of several types of literature including ode, elegy, epistle, verse tale, hymn, song ballad and epigram. This period is frowned upon by critics who compare the context of this era to that of another. They claim Eighteenth century poetry is considered frivolous because often times the content lacked a true essence that poetry upheld for many centuries. Perhaps this is true, for the times of this period were changing and people were facing greater hardships in their daily lives. Melancholy plagued those who were greatly concerned with social ills which may explain the presence of abstract and satiric themes that were heavily prevalent. Perspectives evolved from the Renaissance period into Neoclassicism where individuals became secondary and a greater emphasis on the straight forward mechanics of poetry existed ( Rowles). Although there were many artist noted among this genre of poetry, William Blake established himself as a simple yet dramatic writer who used irony, naà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ve subjects, and traditional ballad structure to baffle the many readers to come( Norton p. 2264). William Blake wrote The Chimney Sweeper of Songs of Innocence in 1789. This poem is about young children who whose families were unable to care for them financially, therefore sent to work in English mines during the 18th century. These boys were often sold to master sweepers and in turn were treated inhumanely ( Arp and Johnson p.117). Blake took this harsh treatment of human life to reveal serous social criticism of his European society. Their heads were shaved bare to prevent black soot from soiling their hair and often suffered from serious diseases. Now, one can understand why Blakes work was frowned upon by aristocracies and often viewed as insane as he strongly disapproved and openly dissented the social welfare programs in his country (Norton p.2268). There is no identifiable audience except for those that hear the third line of the first stanza, weep! weep! weep! weep! in the streets of England. This is interpreted as a childs attempt to sing Sweep! Sweep!, which was the chimney sweepers street cry. There are two ideas which evolve throughout the Chimney Sweeper. Depending on ones outlook, the first possibility is that Blake is stating no matter how detrimental life becomes, no matter how bad the church (government/law) is; one will be with God after death. Sadly children are celebrating the morality of this concept. The idea is if these children continue to work hard, eventually life will resume in the peaceful heavens. This is revealed through a dream the little boy had when, an Angel who had a bright keyopened the coffins and set them all free. The last stanza completes this thought by stating, Though the morning was cold, Tom was happy and warm, so if all do their duty they need not fear harm. The other possibility is a negative-toned belief that children are conned into accepting their lives as slaves for adults. Either way, these boys are mocked by their naà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ve states (Arp 117). Blakes use of dramatic irony is shining bright as he deliberately creates a cheerful sound for six stanzas while simultaneously developing a drastically different meaning. Ironically, this poem shows that children succumb to a positive perspective on life and do not fear death for they are too young to understand the realm of the situation. In the first two lines, Blake gives us an image of a child in a state of agony or even in a state of corruption as he is left all alone with no parents. However, after a night full of merry dreams the boy wakes up feeling happy and warm. This leads the reader to believe life continues with no worries instead of completing the story with a boy whose future is bleak and laborious. Perhaps, although I doubt, Blake would desire the reader to believe that anyone has the ability to be content with a depleted life so long as his/her dreams fulfill that empty space. Blake uses the image of two colors to represent the simplicity of this picture. The color black which holds significant importance as it is used to represent death and corruption. Black is the color of the boys coffins in the little boys dream. The color black is also referenced to the soot which is filth that covers the boys as they perform their daily chores. On the opposite end of the spectrum, the color white represents purity and angelic-like spirit. The eighth line, Toms hair is white before his head is shaved. At this point, Tom is compared to feeble lamb, a symbol of the ultimate sacrificial animal, as he cries when his head becomes bare. And similar to biblical stories, Tom is naked and white when the angels carry him off to heaven where God will be his father. Blake creates an allusion by giving the reader a peace of mind while using God as a symbol for safety and care (Norton p. 2268). There is no discernible meter for the poem, the beats jump anywhere from eight to twelve, with no repetition or pattern found. The Chimney Sweeper tone sounds very much like a nursery rhyme. Similar to Rock-A-Bye-Baby, the sounds are sweet an innocent, but if you read the words, when the bow break, the cradle will fall the words are quite disturbing. Like the dramatic irony established in this poem, tone presents itself as two-dimensional, sounding soft but actually disheartening. Williams Blake writes an excellent poem in my opinion; he used terms and ideas that we have studied in this course such as irony, symbolism and allusion. Although his language is simple rather than manipulating complicated words that Shakespeare prefers, I find his style easier to evaluate. Please do not get the wrong idea, by easy I mean a better understanding. Old world writers are fascinating, but often times are too difficult to comprehend, much less interpret. Not only did I learn about 18th century poetry, I also gained knowledge of Europe social ills of the time. Woks Cited Arp, Thomas, and Greg Johnson. Sound and Sense: An introduction to Poetry. 10th Ed. Heinle Heinle: Boston, MA, 2002 Hugo, Howard, and Patricia M. Spacks. Revolution and Romanticism in Europe and America. The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces. Ed. Maynoard Mack. New York City, NY: W.W. Norton Co. 1997. 2264 2268. Rowles, Kelly. Overview of 18th Century Poetry. New Jersey, 2004. Richard Stockton College of New Jersey. Aug. 2004$6

Friday, September 20, 2019

Use of Enzymes for Clinical Diagnosis

Use of Enzymes for Clinical Diagnosis Clinical enzymology is branch off medical science deals with the usage of enzymes for diagnosis prognosis of various diseases. In general, each enzyme of clinical significance is found in many tissues of the body, and in healthy individuals, these enzyme exhibit very low levels in serum. In certain disease states or with cell injury, these intracellular enzymes are released into the blood and are indicative of the presence of a pathological condition. Quantification of enzyme levels in serum is useful in determining the presence of disease. Based on the individuals physical symptoms, several enzymes may be chosen for analysis to determine if a pattern develops that aids in identifying the tissue source of the enzyme elevation in the serum(2). The understanding of enzyme kinetics allows for laboratory measurement of plasma levels. Damaged or dying cells within organ can release enzymes into the circulation, these plasma enzyme levels can be used to develop a differential diagnosis of a patient with respect to specific organ disease and dysfunction(1). Like others analyte use for clinical chemistry analysis, specific pre-analytical influences have to be taken into consideration. Analysis of enzyme measurement would involve the process from the start to the end that comprises the pre-analytical factors, analytical and post analytical factors. Pre- analytical issues in the enzyme measurement include the types of specimens, the specific anticoagulants and preservative in the tubes and the specimen collection procedure. Table 2.0 describe the type of enzymes, the specimen of choice and the pre-analytical factors that can affect the enzyme measurement. Slight hemolysis can be accepted as there is no CK ain rbc, however severe or moderate hemolysis can cause enzymes and intermediates (adenylate kinase,ATP,glucose 6-phosphatea) liberated from the erytrocytes and may affect the lag phase and the side reactions occurring in the assay system(3) Lactate Dehydrogenase LDH Serum or heparanised plasma Plasma containing anticoagulant especially oxalate, should not be used. Haemolysed specimen 150 times LDH in rbc than serum(3) Alkaline Phosphatare ALP Serum or haparinized plasma ALP-, free hemolysis. Complexing anticoagulants such as citrate,oxalate, and edta must be avoided. Storage and doing test later than 4 hours can cause loss of activity EDTA concentration in the sample-reagent mixture, causing chelation of metallic cations, and this can affect the activity of the alkaline phosphatase Gamma Glutamyl Transferase GGT Serum free from hemolysis preferred. EDTA -plasma ( up to 1 mg/mL blood) can be used Heparin produces turbidity in the reaction mixture; citrate, oxalate and fluoride depress activity by 10 15 % The rate of disappearance of substrate or the rate of appearance of product had been utilized for enzyme measurement. Usually, measuring small increase in product it is much easier than to measure small decrease in a large amount of substrate. In some enzyme measurements, neither the product not the substrate of a chemical reaction can be measured conveniently. In such cases the enzymatic reaction can be coupled to another reaction that uses the product of the enzyme catalyzed reaction to produce an indicator substance (1). The rate of change in concentration of substrate or product is the principle of kinetic method for most of the enzyme measurement. The accuracy of Kinetic makes it easier to detect changes in reaction conditions and samples requiring dilution. In a kinetic reaction, the rate of reaction can be expressed as ΔP/ΔT, the change in amount of per unit time. The amount of enzyme in a sample is measured by the rate of reaction  catalyzed by the enzyme. This rate is directly proportioned to the amount of enzyme and is expressed in enzyme unit, IU/L (4). Substrate depletion phase is a period during an enzyme assay when the concentration of substrate is falling and the assay is not following zero-order kinetics(5). The amount of substrate must be present in sufficient quantity, so that the reaction rate is limited only by the amount of enzymes. In order to get optimal method of enzyme measurement, the substrate concentration is one of the important parameters. It is essential for the concentration of the substrate(s) is saturating during the measured period of the reaction(6). At saturating substrate concentrations, the reaction velocity is pseudo zero order with respect to the substrate and the velocity is proportional only to the enzyme concentration. Figure 1.0; describe the importance of substrate depletion in enzyme measurement. Enzyme activity High Moderate Low Substrate depletion Substrate depletion Lag phase Absorbance Time Figure 1.0 Enzyme activity can be calculated from a plot of absorbance versus time when monitoring an enzyme-catalysed reaction. When reagents and serum are mixed, there may initially be a period of a time when mixing and any preliminary reactions occur; this is termed the lag period. Following this phase, the reaction will proceed at zero-order kinetics (V max); at this point, the rate of appearance of product (as measured from the slope of the line, ΔA/ΔT) is directly proportional to the enzyme activity present. As the reaction proceeds and substrate is depleted, the rate of reaction will fall below V max and the plot is no longer linear. At this point, the reaction is no longer zero order with respect to substrate concentration; rate of reaction is now dependent on both amount of substrate (which is declining) and amount of enzyme present, making it difficult to calculate amount of enzyme present. (Adapted from Henrys Clinical Diagnostic and Management by Laboratory Metho ds) An organic component of enzymes is called coenzyme. Coenzymes participate in many of the enzyme analyses performed in the clinical laboratory. As the coenzyme make up a part of the active site, the role of this coenzyme in enzymatic transamination is crucial as an example the use of pyridoxal phosphate for expression of enzyme activity for aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase measurement(7). Table 3.0 describe the enzyme, the coenzyme and the clinical relevance of the enzyme measurement for laboratory diagnosis. In conclusion, the type of assay method, sample preparation, age and storage conditions are the variables that have to be taken into consideration in the determination of enzyme activity. Other important variables in determining enzyme activity include temperature, pH, concentration of substrate, concentration of cofactors of the assay, use of other enzyme reactions as indicators, and whether the forward or backward reaction is used to measure the enzyme. All of these variables can lead to significant differences in enzyme activity between methods (1). Enzyme Co-enzyme Clinical relevance Creatinine kinase (CK) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Elevations of total CK in serum are associated with cardiac disorders, such as AMI, and skeletal muscle disorder, such as muscular dystrophy. Occasionally,elevations are due to central nervous system, including seizures and cerebral vascular accidents. CK-MB values greater than 6 % of total CK are suggestive of AMI. When AMI is suspected, troponin is assayed in conjunction with CK-MB, and sometimes myoglobin is assayed. Following AMI, Ck-MB levels rise within 4-6 hrs,peak at 12-24 hours, and return to normal within 2-3 days(2). Aspartate aminotransferase pyridoxal phosphate AST is used to evaluate hepatocellular disorders (up to 100 times upper reference limit in infectious mononucleosis, and up to 4 times upper reference limit in cirrhosis), skeletal muscle disorders ( up to 8 times upper reference limit) and acute pancreatitis(8). In AMI, AST rises within 6-8 hours, peaks at 18-24 hours, and return to normal within 4-5 days. AST is not used to diagnose AMI, but awareness of the AST pattern may be useful when ruling out other disorders, including concurrent liver damage(2). Lactate dehydrogenase (LD) NAD Elevated in cardiac disorders (AMI), hepatic diseases (viral hepatitis,cirrhosis,infectious mononucleosis),skeletal muscle diseases, haemolytic and haematological disorders (acute lymphoblastic leukemia) In AMI, LD levels rise within 8-12 hours, peak at 24-48 hours, and return to normal in 7 10 days. Although LD and LD isoenzymes are not used to diagnose AMI, knowledge of their pattern may be useful when assessing concurrent liver damage(2).

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Shakespeares Presentation Of Claudius In Hamlet Essay -- William Shak

Shakespeare's Presentation Of Claudius In Hamlet 'Hamlet' opens with the death of Old King Hamlet, Father of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. The new king, Claudius, brother of the previous king has married Gertrude, the dead man's widow and has taken the throne. Shakespeare presents Claudius as the plays 'damned smiley villain' although he does allow him some redeeming features; leading an audience to view him as a complex and contradictory figure within the play. After Old King Hamlet dies Claudius is crowned king of Denmark and talks to the people as though he has sympathy and is saddened by his brother's death 'and that it is us befitted to bear out hearts in grief, and our whole kingdom to be continued in one brow of woe.' However, he comes across as insincere as he marries his brother's wife so soon after the funeral. Claudius is sly and clever as he counters possible opposition to his marriage by flattering his court; thanking them for their better wisdoms, which have freely gone with this affair! For the same reasons he turns his attention to the threat of invasion by Fortinbras and shows himself to be an excellent king: knowledgeable, organised and efficient in dealing with the imminent attack by diplomatic means. The king's treachery is revealed when the ghost of Old King Hamlet appears to Hamlet who talks very much of his hate of his brother, Claudius 'The serpent that did sting thy fathers life now wears the crown.' Referring to Claudius as a serpent who plays around beneath you, very deceptive and sly. Claudius has committed two crimes of murder, Fratricide- murder of his brother and Regicide- murder of the ki... ..., I am but hurt.' Hamlet kills Claudius by forcing him to drink the poison his mother has drank. Hamlet is not an unprincipled murderer and traitor, Claudius is! Claudius has manipulated Laertes and deserved to die by Hamlet, as it was an act of revenge and justice for the murder of his father. Claudius is the obvious villain of the play presented by Shakespeare as a contradictory character with clear strengths and weaknesses. He possesses excellent leadership qualities, is diplomatic, determined and clever but beneath this impressive public image he is cowardly, deceptive, murderous and duplicitous. He is therefore presented as a complex character throughout the play. Shakespeare's presentation of Claudius allows him to explore human nature and the themes of corruption, appearance and reality and political intrigue.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Jason :: essays research papers

There is a place I like to go to get away from everyone and everything. My room a place that is mine alone and if my door is closed, then those outside have to knock to be granted access. My room makes me feel comfortable because it contains all my things and with these things around me, I feel safe. Three dressers line the wall opposite my bed. Two have shelf units above them, with a full mirror hung on the wall of the middle one. Next to the left most one, there is a desk, usually cluttered, and a bookshelf on top that houses many well-read books. There is a pink plastic dollhouse to the right of the doorway, next to my closet; once an everyday plaything, it now sits alone gathering dust in the corner. My closet is full of clothing, but also contains many pairs and sizes of shoes, old dolls shelved high above the floor, and a few games (most are either downstairs or in my window seat).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  My bed is against the wall to the bathroom. The bathroom that my sister and I share is between my bed and the closet. My bed is very comfortable and cushiony. It helps put me to sleep at night because of the security I feel with it. A real â€Å"security† object, I suppose, would be the stuffed animal I received when I was born, a stuffed monkey called ‘Curious George’. When I was little, I used to think that if I did not lay my feet flat on top of the bed, wolves would come and bite them off because they could see them, so I usually had â€Å"George† protect me. Other stuffed animals in my room give me comfort still, even though I do not play with them as I once did, they provide many happy childhood memories.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A caricature of me, that was drawn when I lived in California, is another thing I like to laugh at because it does not really look like the person I am today. Next to that is a picture I drew of my two old dogs, who passed away when we lived in Switzerland. It shows them sitting on clouds with halos, looking down on us, smiling, as they always did. That picture is a real source of comfort to me because sometimes it feels as if they are watching over me.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Theme of Beauty in La Belle Dame Sans Merci Essay -- John Keats

In the poem â€Å"La Belle Dame Sans Merci† by John Keats, the main theme is the idea that beauty is only skin deep and can be an extremely painful emotional experience. The title loosely translates into â€Å"the beautiful woman with no mercy†. As we read the poem it becomes clear that the knight had his feelings shattered by this woman on his steed. Keats uses a number of different language techniques to make the poem effective. The first is dividing the poem into two parts through the use of 2 speakers. We do not know who the first speaker is, probably someone who is passing through the area. In stanza 1 and 2 the poet makes use of repetition as he questions the knight about his condition â€Å"Ah, what can ail thee, wretched wight?† line 1 stanza 1 and 2. He asks him why he is â€Å"so haggard, and so wo...

Monday, September 16, 2019

Confidence and Innocence Through Point of View

John Updike’s well-known short story, â€Å"A & P†, employs a unique form of narrative, utilizing the first person point of view.The themes of innocence and confidence of the youth intertwine in Updike’s story, through a play in narrative tone, as made possible by the first person point of view. As an effect of this narrative form, the story begins abruptly: â€Å"In walks these three girls in nothing but bathing suits.† The tension that will slowly build up as the story progresses is given right away at the narration’s first blow.Followed by the first sentence is a statement from the persona, which serves as a device to establish the story’s setting. At this point, a â€Å"camera† is set up for us in the place where the story happens. The voice in the narrative serves as the set of eyes by which we witness all events taking place. Set in the A & P grocery store, the story unfolds in a setting of complex structure—shelves with i tems lined up and several identical aisles.Perhaps, with this focused and limited set of eyes, the first person point of view allows the reader to get a simplified description of the A & P’s surroundings: â€Å"I’m in the third check-out slot, with my back to the door . . .† Throughout the story, we meet characters and witness events through this perspective.Updike’s narration, however, is not just unique in terms of point of view. The choice of perspective also enables the reader to hear a distinct â€Å"voice.†Accompanied by a pair of eyes is a voice and tone that contributes to strengthening the realistic feel of the story.  Ã‚   It is noticeable that the language used by the author is very conversational, making it feel like the voice connects directly to the reader. Not only does it tell the story; it slowly forms a personality, which, in this case of using the first person point of view, is not excluded from the story’s turn of event s.In â€Å"A & P†, we witness an incident caused by three teenage girls in bathing suits from the perspective of Sammy, a nineteen-year-old boy working at the check-out counter. It is interesting that his name is not revealed until the late middle portion of the story. Nevertheless, his character has already been established at the very beginning, where we hear his voice and vicariously experience the story. To further explore this point, let me cite a few lines, which contribute to establishing Sammy’s character.Seeing the three girls in bathing suits, he immediately focuses his attention to one girl, which he refers to as a â€Å"chunky kid.† Here, by noting his word choice, Sammy already appears to us as a free-spirited teenager. This is reiterated as he comments on the customer who complains as Sammy rings the purchase a second time:   â€Å"She's one of these cash-register-watchers, a witch about fifty with rouge on her cheekbones and no eyebrows, and I know it made her day to trip me up. She'd been watching cash registers forty years and probably never seen a mistake before.†These lines are dabbed with a sense of annoyance towards elders, and in this case, an old lady. Later on in the story, we get the same feel in his somewhat mocking remark: â€Å". . . women generally put on a shirt or shorts or something before they get out of the car into the street. And anyway these are usually women with six children and varicose veins mapping their legs and nobody, including them, could care less.†This tone, which brings with it a sense of confidence freedom of spirit, also shows us the innocence behind the personality—his opinions are quite shallow, leaning towards trivial matters. This overall tone contributes and prepares us for the shifts that occur in the story. The finality in Sammy’s tone falters when he begins to speak of Lengel, the single figure of authority in the story. More and more, the image presen ted to us of Lengel reveals Sammy’s innocence. And indeed, the story’s conclusion confirms it.The presence of the three girls in A & P also reflects the innocent confidence of the youth. Baring all, they brazenly enter into a place, not caring that their outfits don’t blend in. At first, it appears to us as a dare, as something that â€Å"Queenie† perhaps suggested—a rebellious act, which could probably be an act against authority, intended to project superiority over rules and adults.However, this queen-like image of strength also falters at the entrance of Lengel into the story. Lengel obviously represents authority—as manager and as Sunday School teacher. Firm in his tone—not defensive or angry, nor is he loud and uncontrolled, he calls out the unfitting clothing worn by these three young ladies.As he speaks, we feel the stark contrast of tone between him and the teenagers in the story. Right after this, one of the girl mentions he r mother as an excuse: â€Å"My mother asked me to pick up a jar of herring snacks.† Immediately, the brazen air to â€Å"Queenie† vanishes—she appears to us as a little girl hiding under her mother’s skirt. By inserting a figure as Lengel into the narrative, Sammy’s tone is helplessly muffled—as if he suddenly gives in to how things are—and not as how he perceives things to be.The events that follow feel like a gradual crash. Impulsive as he is, Sammy decides to play the role of an â€Å"unsuspected hero.† And the way he narrates his story implies that his next act is only seemingly brave, defiant, and strong.He makes his motives clear: â€Å"The girls, and who'd blame them, are in a hurry to get out, so I say â€Å"I quit† to Lengel quick enough for them to hear, hoping they'll stop and watch me, their unsuspected hero.† Not knowing how to handle the situation, he puts up a front, faltering more and more:  "I started to say something that came out â€Å"Fiddle-de-doo.† It's a saying of my grand- mother's, and I know she would have been pleased.†Again, figures of authority are projected in the story—the mention of his grandmother, for instance. Soon after that, Lengel’s input to Sammy’s impulsiveness makes him look even more innocent and young—an image which veers away from the initial confidence suggested by the tone made possible by the narration’s first person point of view: â€Å"Lengel sighs and begins to look very patient and old and gray. He's been a friend of my parents for years.â€Å"Sammy, you don't want to do this to your Mom and Dad,† he tells me.† Parents once again come into the picture. And the mockery thrown by the

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Differences Between Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson Essay

Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson’s works have numerous differences. Compared to Dickinson’s short and seemingly simple poems, Whitman’s are long and often complex. Both pioneered their own unique style of writing. Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson both have been hailed as original and unique artists. They each have distinctive voices that many have attempted to replicate and have been unable to do so. Whitman wrote in epic like proportions; he developed his own rhythmic structure, creating complex lines and stanzas. Whitman’s style of free verse become synonymous with his name and works, and helped distinguish him as a great American poet. By using free verse poetry, Whitman tore down the boundary and structure of traditional poetry with the rhythm of cadence, allowing all types of people to use poetry as a form of expression. Whitman’s poems tend to run on and on; there was no set length for his poems, stanzas, or even lines. Dickinson, on the other hand, wrote poems with a definite structure. She wrote ballad stanzas, which were four line stanzas alternating in iambic tetrameter and trimeter. So the structure of their poems is very different. Another difference between their poetry is the use of rhyme. As with structure, Whitman’s poetry has no rhyme. In this way Whitman also breaks from tradition. Dickinson’s poems, unlike Whitman’s, made use of slant rhyme. This is the use of near or approximate rhymes, and is a relatively modern idea. So this is yet another way in which they differ in style. First, the most forthcoming evidence of their differences would be the structure that the poets use to express themselves through. Whitman uses free verse in his poems. A clear representation of this is any excerpt from â€Å"Song of Myself†. This poem has a set rhythm, but no definite rhyme scheme. â€Å"The Yankee clipper is under her sky-sails, she cuts the sparkle and scud, / My eyes settle the land, I bend at her prow or shout joyously from the deck. † (Whitman- â€Å"Song of Myself 10. † lines 6-7) This makes the poem less appealing to read but leaves a lot more room for expression from the author. Dickinson, however, uses well planned out short lines of rhymes. Her poems don’t usually consist of many more than 6 words per line and are written in verse. This gives each poem an easier pattern and flow to comprehend. These poems may not sound as sophisticated, but are equally brilliant. â€Å"If you were coming in the Fall, / I’d brush the Summer by / With half a smile, and half a spurn, / As Housewives do a fly. † (Dickinson- â€Å"If you were coming†¦ His preoccupation with sex, the human body, and numerous other â€Å"taboo† subjects, changed the American publics view of poetry. Dickinson’s works are just as unique, due mainly to her odd placement of punctuation, unusual grammar, and simplicity of language. Her lines end abruptly, outwardly innocuous words are often capitalized, and her tendency to write meters typical of hymnals all distinguishes her from other writers Although they were both Romantics, Whitman and Dickinson were so different from each other. Whitman grew up reading a myriad amount of literary works, including Homer’s Odyssey and the Bible. His poetry is reflective of the works he read in his early years. Dickinson, on the other hand, learned how to read and write in a time period of male authority. Her poetry is metaphysical, and expressive of her soul. Together, Whitman and Dickinson marked a turning point in American poetry. In the poem, â€Å"Song of Myself,† Whitman opens with an oceanic scene of a skipper who struggles to save the weary passengers of a sinking ship that is hit by a violent storm. As the skipper watches the wrath of the storm, Whitman uses personification to bring life out of the scene. â€Å"How the skipper saw the crowded and rudderless wreck of the steam-ship, and Death chasing it up and down the storm† (Whitman 1). The death that chases the ship up and down the storm is the waves that relentlessly crash against the hull. In the same way that death is the end of life, the wrath of the waves is the end of the passengers. When the skipper cannot bear the tragic scene no more, and decides to save all the stricken passengers, Whitman uses a Biblical allusion to add a deeper meaning to the skipper’s heroic act. â€Å"How he follow’d them and tack’d with them three days and would not give it up, how he saved the drifting company at last† (Whitman 1). The skipper’s strife to save the drifting passengers for three days is an allusion to the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. In the Bible, Jesus dies to save mankind from sin, and resurrects three days later. Whitman uses this Biblical allusion to bring the skipper up to the level of Jesus Christ, making the two saviors equal. As the skipper looks onward at the faces of the survivors, Whitman applies imagery to describe the passengers. â€Å"How the silent old-faced infants and the lifted sick, and the sharp-lipp’d unshaved men† (Whitman 1). The passengers that survive the ship wreck are no longer the same people that stepped foot on that ship. The image of old babies doesn’t describe their age, but their sense of maturity, even though babies cannot be mature. Likewise, the image of the sharp-lipp’d unshaved men doesn’t describe their lips and hair, but their burden of being unable to save their own families from the storm, even though that is the duty of a father. At first, it may seem as if the skipper is the sole hero in the poem, but that is not the case. Through â€Å"Song of Myself,† Whitman illustrates that a hero is not defined by an act of salvation, but rather by the hardship a person endures. The skipper and the survivors of the shipwreck are all heroes, because they endure a hardship nobody knows. The skipper endures the hardship of saving each passenger and the passengers endure the waves of the violent storm. Their endurance through troubling times is what counts them as heroes. In the poem, â€Å"Success is Counted Sweetest,† Dickinson centers all attention on an ambitious soldier who comes close to victory, but fails to grasp it in his hands. As the soldier lays wounded on the ground, Dickinson uses taste to interact the reader’s senses with the moment. â€Å"Success is counted sweetest by those who ne’er succeed† (Dickinson 1). Something that is sweet tastes very good, because it creates a very pleasing sensation. In the same way that a candy bar is sweet, success is also sweet because it feels good. However, Dickinson expresses that success is sweetest to those who almost reach it. Victory means the most to the wounded soldier because he comes so close to winning, but ends up losing. It’s as if he can almost taste victory, but his tongue never touches it. When the dying soldier sees the opposing army in victory, Dickinson adds irony to apply a deeper meaning to the poem. â€Å"Not one of all the purple Host who took the flag today can tell the definition so clear of victory† (Dickinson 1). The army that has the flag is the army that wins the battle. However, Dickinson expresses that the victorious army does not know the true definition of victory. This is ironic, because the one that wins should be able to describe victory, and the one that loses should be able to describe failure. It is not the other way around. As the soldier and his comrades listen to the sound of the other side’s victory, Dickson uses imagery to end the scene. â€Å"As he defeated – dying – on whose forbidden ear the distant strains of triumph burst agonized and clear† (Dickinson 1). The solider is dying on the ground from his battle wounds and he is in complete agony. However, his agony is amplified because the soldier can hear the sound of victory from the other side. This is more painful to him than his physical wounds, because their sound of victory is the impending sound of his failure. Although it may seem as if the heroes in the poem are the victors, the dying soldier is the actual hero. Through â€Å"Success is Counted Sweetest,† Dickinson illustrates that a hero is not defined by his victories, but by his sacrifice for a cause. The dying soldier is a hero because he sacrifices his life for the cause of his army. Likewise, the victorious soldiers are also heroes because they also sacrifice their lives for the cause of their army. It doesn’t matter which cause emerges victorious, because not every army succeeds. It’s because heroes don’t always win – they sacrifice. As the greatest Romantics of their age, Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson influenced American literature and poetry to the highest degree. Through his works, Whitman changed poetry by creating cadence and free verse. Again the long roll of the drummers, again the attacking cannon, mortars, again to my listening ears the cannon responsive† (Whitman ). By using free verse poetry, Whitman tore down the boundary and structure of traditional poetry with the rhythm of cadence, allowing all types of people to use poetry as a form of expression. Aside from Whitman, Dickinson was a lonely woman who wrote poetry to express her inner feelings. Having never found true love, she spent many days isolated from others, allowing her imagination to grow wild. She found ways to superficially describe objects, ideas, and feelings. However she only meant for her writings to remain in a box. Through her works, Dickinson expanded poetry by way of rhyme and meter. â€Å"If you were coming in the fall, I’d brush the Summer by with half a smile, and half a spurn, as Housewives do, a fly† (Dickinson 1). By using rhyme and meter, Dickinson opened American literature to women, showing that men were not the only ones who knew how to use ink and paper. Through her unique writing style, she took poetry to a higher level, making it a complete and concise language of the soul. Dickinson’s poetry followed a much stricter meter and rhyme scheme. She is known for her carefully worded and arranged poems. Many of Dickinson’s poems are in quatrains, which are four lines per stanza. Together, Walt and Emily are the reason behind today’s American literature. Although Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson could paint pictures with words, their contributions to American Romantic literature were not equal. They often wrote about the American hero, but both authors are the living American heroes. The greater author is Walt Whitman, because he didn’t solely speak for himself. He spoke and wrote for the American people. This is important because he wanted the voice of all American people to be heard as testimony to world peace. Dickinson, on the other hand, only hid in her house to write, not making her voice heard. She made poetry metaphysical, but Whitman made poetry powerful. Dickinson opened doors for women, but Whitman opened the houses of America’s ideology. Through cadence and free verse, or rhyme and meter, Dickinson and Whitman changed American Romantic poetry. However, Walt Whitman gains the title, Master of the Word. There are by far more differences in the writing styles of Whitman and Dickinson than there are similarities. One difference is the way they structured their poems. Basically, the structures of Whitman’s poem is the lack of any structure. Whitman’s poems tend to run on and on; there was no set length for his poems, stanzas, or even lines. Dickinson, on the other hand, wrote poems with a definite structure. She wrote ballad stanzas, which were four line stanzas alternating in iambic tetrameter and trimeter. So the structure of their poems is very different. Another difference between their poetry is the use of rhyme. As with structure, Whitman’s poetry has no rhyme. In this way Whitman also breaks from tradition. Dickinson’s poems, unlike Whitman’s, made use of slant rhyme. This is the use of near or approximate rhymes, and is a relatively modern idea. So this is yet another way in which they differ in style. First, the most forthcoming evidence of their differences would be the structure that the poets use to express themselves through. Whitman uses free verse in his poems. A clear representation of this is any excerpt from â€Å"Song of Myself†. This poem has a set rhythm, but no definite rhyme scheme. â€Å"The Yankee clipper is under her sky-sails, she cuts the sparkle and scud, / My eyes settle the land, I bend at her prow or shout joyously from the deck. † (Whitman- â€Å"Song of Myself 10. † lines 6-7) This makes the poem less appealing to read but leaves a lot more room for expression from the author. Dickinson, however, uses well planned out short lines of rhymes. Her poems don’t usually consist of many more than 6 words per line and are written in verse. This gives each poem an easier pattern and flow to comprehend. These poems may not sound as sophisticated, but are equally brilliant. â€Å"If you were coming in the Fall, / I’d brush the Summer by / With half a smile, and half a spurn, / As Housewives do a fly. † (Dickinson- â€Å"If you were coming†¦ Whitman began a new era in the writing world; he was the first not to conform to the usual standards of writing. His poems don’t have specific rhyming patterns, and some don’t rhyme at all, where as Dickinson’s poems fit more into the form that had been set at that time. Dickinson’s poems usually have at least two end rhymes in each stanza, which was usually how poetry was written. While Whitman’s poems are large and expansive, the lines long and visually descriptive, Dickinson’s works, in contrast, are highly compressed, squeezing moments of intense emotions and thought into tight four line stanzas which contract feeling and condense thought. Whitman doesn’t use metaphors in his poetry which creates a more democratic form of poetry, in which not has pride of place. His voice submerges and surfaces at odd intervals, losing itself in a†¦ She wrote her poetry for herself rather than others. Whitman tended to write as a representative of all the American people. Dickinson wished to reserve her poetry to herself, as she did not want her works to be judged by others. (Gall4) â€Å"Whitman sees the poetic act as a means of reconciling the solitary self with the world while Dickinson views consciousness as always at war with a recalcitrant, ultimately alien and unknowable universe. â€Å"(Library Journal 82) While they vary in numerous ways, Whitman and Dickinson endure as this nation’s most prominent contributors to American poetry and are our greatest understanding of the distinctively American Essence One of the hallmark differences between them is in the length of lines they use in their poems. Characteristically, Whitman employs, and is indeed the master of, the long line. Dickinson, on the other hand, makes use exclusively of short, staccato, unadorned lines. A case can be made for the notion that a relationship exists between line length and the kinds of ideas expressed by these poets. The ideas Whitman presents in his poems are more individual, personal, and emotional, whereas Dickinson presents ideas which seem more universal and at times almost factual in nature. This basic difference between the two can be supported by examining a â€Å"typical† poem by each poet. When Whitman presents the idea of death in his poetry it is very personalized, almost to the point of being unique to him. In â€Å"Song of Myself,† stanza 49, he addresses Death directly: â€Å"And as to you Death, and you bitter hug of mortality, it is idle to try to alarm me† (Norton, p. 33, l. 1289). He admits that Death has the power to do as he wishes, to do him harm, to take him away in his â€Å"bitter hug of mortality,† but he will not be afraid. He is not readily resigning himself to Death, and he will certainly not be intimidated. â€Å"And as to you Corpse I think you are good manure, but that does not offend me† (Norton, p. 3, l. 1294). He sees the good that can come from Death. â€Å"I smell the white roses sweet-scented and growing, I reach to the leafy lips, I reach to the polish’d breasts of melons† (Norton, p. 33, ll. 1295-96). Furthermore, even though Death may take him now, killing him, bringing him down, â€Å"(No doubt I have died myself ten thousand times before)† (Norton, p. 33, l. 1298). He is going because he has no choice, but it is not the end, and he will argue and put up a fight. He will rise above the inevitable: Emily Dickinson, on the other hand, presents the idea of death in a much different way. In her poem, â€Å"Because I could not stop for Death,† one simple idea is expressed, that Death is inevitable. Because most people do not ask for Death, â€Å"He kindly stopped for me† (Norton, p. 52, l. 2). Then he went slowly about his business, taking her along with him on his journey. They passed by life, youth, children, and the fields and light of Earth. They â€Å"paused before a House that seemed / A Swelling of the Ground† (Norton, p. 52, ll. 17-18) before continuing â€Å"toward Eternity. † Not once does she fight the inevitable tug of death. She is going just like everyone else has gone and must go. It is a simple thing. There is nothing to be done about it, so go along just like everyone else. She is uninterested in persuading or in even discussing the subject. Instead she presents her idea as it is, almost factually – Death is here and I am going with him. She is resigned to her fate, a universal fate, not particularly personalized for her. In this case, it is almost a pleasant experience, a comfortable resignation to what is inevitable. We can see then that the long and complex lines of Whitman are used for deep and complicated and emotional expression. His ideas are seldom simple, but instead, multifaceted and sprawling in scope. They are steeped in individuality, rooted in and reflecting the frequently illogical fluctuations of personality. There is plenty of room in his lines for such expression. Whereas Dickinson, due in part to the abbreviated, staccato nature of her lines, is much more limited. There is no room in her poems to expand and explore, demonstrate, preach, convince, and implore. Yet both, needless to say, say what they must clearly and beautifully.

A Reaction Paper On A Country Doctor English Literature Essay

Franz Kafka ‘s A state physician is a narrative about a physician who is called upon in the center of the dark to go to to a earnestly sick immature adult male.Hampered by deficiency of conveyance agencies and utmost conditions conditions, the physician is at strivings to come up with solutions to his jobs. This essay paper will try to consistently analyze the challenges and defeats that the physician encounters as the narrative unfolds. This essay will besides reply the inquiries as to why the narrative may be referred to as a incubus every bit good as explore the major subjects brought out in this artistic narrative that is so a reproduction of Franz Kafka ‘s coevals and the current modern society. Challenges and Frustrations The physician is in a quandary He is challenged by the fact that he has no agencies of conveyance to take him to the place of the gravely sick immature adult male, 10 stat mis off. The physician ‘s Equus caballus had died due to the icy winter. â€Å" My ain Equus caballus had died the old dark as a consequence of overexertion in this icy winter. † The physician is frustrated at this point because no one inA A the small town was willing to help him. â€Å" My servant miss was at that really minute running around the small town to see if she could borrow a Equus caballus but it was hopeless-I knew that. † Out of defeat the physician hazards aching himself by kicking the pigpen ‘s door. â€Å" I kicked my pes against the chapped door of the pigpen which had non been used for old ages. † The terrible conditions conditions pose a challenge to the physician excessively. He has to digest the chilly blizzard to travel and go to to a patient. The physician says, â€Å" A terrible blizzard filled the infinite between him and me. † The physician does non conceal his quandary when he says, â€Å" I stood there useless, progressively covered by snow, going all the clip immobile. † After handling the ill immature adult male the physician attempts to do his manner place but the one time strong and fat Equus caballuss are old and tired, they move at a slow rate at which the physician feels he will ne'er make place. See, â€Å" We dragged easy through the snowy desert like old work forces. † The physician is obviously frustrated when he says, â€Å" I ‘ll ne'er come place at this rate. He becomes sad when he thinks of his place which was occupied by the Groom. â€Å" In my house the disgusting groom is bringing mayhem, Rosa is his victim. † The 3rd challenge that the physician brushs is the Groom. The physician does non cognize how to cover with this alien. First, when the groom viciously bites Rosa on her cheeks, the physician merely threatens the groom with words and quiet down at one time because he wanted to borrow a Equus caballus from the groom. At that minute, the physician is about the groom ‘s slave. The groom finally offers his Equus caballuss to the physician but decides to remain with Rosa alternatively of going with the doctor.A The physician is hence at hamlets. He does non cognize whether he should remain and protect Rosa from the barbarous groom or travel in front and go to to the earnestly sick Youngman. The physician chose the later. However, as the narrative unfolds the defeats of the physician refering this determination go evident. See, â€Å" I had to give Rosa every bit good, this beautiful miss, who lives in my house all twelvemonth long and whom I barely notice-this forfeit is excessively great. † The physician is challenged by poorness and excessively much work. He has dedicated his life to functioning the territory but is ill paid. See, â€Å" I am employed by the territory and my responsibility make my responsibility to the full, right to the point where it is about excessively much. Badly paid, but I am generous and ready to assist the hapless. † The physician has merely one Equus caballus, when the Equus caballus dies the physician lacks agencies of conveyance to enable him execute his responsibilities expeditiously. The physician is obviously overworked. He is called at midnight to go to to patients. It seems he seldom sleeps since his dark bell was ever rung by villagers. When executing his responsibilities the physician is under force per unit area from the villagers. They want him to immediately bring around their patients. The physician is frustrated by this when he says. â€Å" I am non a universe humanitarian. † Subjects The first subject that has been good brought out is the subject of agony. At the beginning of the narrative, the physician suffers psychologically because he has no agencies of conveyance to enable him make the place of a earnestly sick adult male. â€Å" I was in great trouble. An pressing journey was confronting me.A earnestly sick adult male was waiting for me in a small town 10 stat mis distant. † The physician ‘s Equus caballus had died and he was worried because no villager would impart him a Equus caballus. â€Å" Of class, who is now traveling to impart his Equus caballus for such a journey? † The utmost icy winter made the physician to endure. First his Equus caballus dies in the winter go forthing him without agencies of conveyance and secondly the physician has to digest the chilly conditions to go to toA A the patient. â€Å" I stood there useless, progressively covered by snow, going all the clip more immobile. Rosa suffers when the groom bites her on the cheeks. â€Å" On the miss ‘s cheeks are ruddy Markss from two rows of dentition. † Rosa further suffers when the physician leaves her to remain with the evil groom against her will. â€Å" No, screams Rosa and runs into the house with an accurate foreboding of the inevitableness of her destiny. † The ill immature adult male suffers excessively. The immature adult male suffers from a deathly lesion that is infested with worms. See, â€Å" On his right side, in the part of the hip, a lesion the size of the thenar of 1s manus had opened up. † The immature adult male holding lost hope of life Tells the physician, â€Å" Doctor allow me decease. † The 2nd subject found in this narrative is blasted. The physician blames his failure to go to T o a earnestly sick patient on his deficiency of a Equus caballus. See, â€Å" But the Equus caballus was missing- the Equus caballus. † The physician further blames the villagers for unnecessarily citing him to go to patients who harmonizing to the physician were merely shaming unwellness. He blames the villagers further for non helping him in clip of demand. See, â€Å" My servant miss was at that really minute running around the small town to see if she could borrow a Equus caballus but it was hopeless. † The state physician as a narrative constantly topographic points blame for his failure on others, on the deficiency of Equus caballuss, on the groom, on the villagers, on the immature adult male. His narrative attitude is one of ; if I have failed it is non my mistake, but instead the mistake of others ( Grey 2009 ) Exploitation is another subject found in this narrative. Exploitation is unjust intervention of person or usage of a state of affairs in a manner that is incorrect in order to acquire some benefit ( Wikipedia, 2009 ) the groom appears at a clip when the physician is need of conveyance agencies and takes advantage of the state of affairs to take Rosa against her will. â€Å" I see how in add-on she chases down the room seting all the visible radiations in order to do herselfA impossible to happen. † The subject of treachery is besides apparent in this shortA A narrative. The physician betrays his house aid when he leaves he in the custodies of the barbarous groom. â€Å" I had to give Rosa every bit good, this beautiful miss who lives in my house all twelvemonth long and whom I barely notice-this forfeit is excessively great. † He witnesses the unmarried man force himself upon the house maid but instead than remain to entree and demilitarize the alien, the physician allows the steeds to transport him off as the shriek of his maidservant reverberation through the winter dark. ( Hemphill 2009 ) This short narrative may be called a incubus. The physician concludes that the ill immature adult male is shaming unwellness after a brief scrutiny. The physician merely observed the pulse of the patient. In his concluding the patient was merely seeking attending that he was non ill. The physician in this narrative does non run the manner physicians in existent universe operate. Alex Hemphill observed that Franz Kafka ‘s – A state physician is written in a watercourse of consciousness and includes all the devising of a incubus ( 2009 ) When the physician kicked the door of the pigpen at that place emerged the groom and the two Equus caballuss cryptically. This is absolute phantasy and can non go on in a existent world.. â€Å" Two Equus caballuss, powerful animate beings with strong wings shoved their manner one behind the other. † A state physician can be read as fulfillment phantasy motivated by self excuse ( Grey 2009 ) Decision The physician in Franz Kafka ‘s -A state physician is a contemplation of some people in the society who sacrifice their lives to function everyone but their attempts are barely noticed by anyone. They are the unobserved heroes of national development who would instead decease than fail responsibility. Though frustrated by environment and a society that does non appreciate them, such people do non fear to meet the challenges that lie in front of them. Possibly the physician sums everything in his narrative by asseverating that, â€Å" To compose prescriptions is easy but to come to an understanding with people is difficult. †

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Creating a Plan for a Culturally Diverse Essay

In the classrooms and schools today, cultural diversity is rising. The biggest challenge for teachers in our schools today and within the classrooms is how to amend their curriculum to meet all the needs of the students in the relation of culture. For a teacher in a multicultural diverse classroom, a teacher needs to augment their cultural understanding, shape their curriculum so that it is culturally related to all their students in the classroom, and to use supportive learning education. With these practices in place and along with other structural planning, it is important for the precise connection between multicultural teachings of students in a classroom (Merlino, 2007). The first step to accommodating students is to enhance cultural sensitivity from diverse cultural in the classroom. This requires teachers to interpret their multicultural diverse student’s behaviors within the cultural perspective of the child (Merlino, 2007). The environment in a classroom is an essent ial part to learning. The atmosphere in the classroom helps determine the accomplishment of the lessons being taught and the student’s behavior. All students are different, and therefore it is important for all students to respect one another in order for the efficiency of a classroom to be optimized (Ganly, 2008). The importance for a teacher is that they are able to create an atmosphere of tolerance, acceptance, and caring within the classroom. This is in order to provide for all the diversified needs for all students. Living in Melbourne which is located in Florida. Melbourne is about two hours from Orlando on the east coast. The population in Melbourne is Caucasian, Hispanic, Latino, African American, German, and Asian. In Melbourne, we have Christian and Baptist churches throughout the city. We also have Catholic, Islam, and Jewish churches as well. The people who live in Melbourne are of low, high, and middle class economic status, but many of the people who live here are middle to low working class. Melbourne seems like a quite little city outside of the busy, bigger city of Orlando, which have many tourists, but we are also diverse in several ways. Practicing tolerance and acceptance in classroom provides all students with the ability to be at ease with themselves. It will also help all students to release predetermined biases and teach the students to learn more about what is within another student instead of judging the student by their appearance. The use of tolerance, acceptance, and caring provides a nice, comfortable  classroom environment for all students that can be productive for their learning experience. This will help encourage teamwork, confidence, and respect that are all a part of the key factors for a flourishing classroom environment (Ganly, 2008). To construct a tolerate, accepting, and caring classroom atmosphere for my students in my classroom, there are many things I can do as a teacher. As a teacher in Melbourne, Florida, I would make sure to discuss diversity to my students and explain why it is an important, positive lesson in the classroom. I can create lesson plans that discuss the cultures of all my students in my classroom and the cultures within in our community. I would also discuss the different religious beliefs of our community. Discussing different religious beliefs in our community to my students lets us discuss their beliefs as well from the different cultures within my classroom. Discussing to my students about students with disabilities and students who are at risk, is a very important, necessary lesson that I would teach my students. The lesson would be to help my students comprehend that these differences do not make a person less of a person; but these differences make the person just as important as all students. Discussing with my students about socioeconomic issues and how they affect all students in many ways and the differences in gender is important. I believe teaching my students about gender issues is very important because of many gender stereotypes pressure how both females and males learn, and it is important for both genders to be given equal opportunities to learn inside the classroom. Discussing these issues is to help show all of my students that every person has needs, and I would stress that it is important for all students to recognize and help each other in order to benefit themselves along with the cultures that surround them. Being a teacher, I would want to discuss and teach that the differences in people make them interesting, and by creating lesson plans that would help show my students how their own distinctive differences that will help my classroom function appropriately. My lesson plans will be in place to help my students recognize and overcome their biases. During these lessons, I would also make sure to tell all of the students what I have learned from them by understanding their culture and their beliefs, and that they can find out about themselves and improve themselves. I feel that this is important for students to be conscious of the inequalities that  exist so that they can receive the education they deserve, and they can fulfill their educational goals. For me, being a teacher, it is important to make sure that my classroom atmosphere is comfortable to ensure the productivity of all my students. Teaching my students that differences learned from, is a way to help ensure a positive, comfo rtable, caring, and successful classroom. As a teacher, I will help all my students understand biases, and I will help them be able to accept the differences of the people and the cultures around them. I believe there are many ways a teacher can incorporate diversity lessons into their classroom. Getting to know your students is important to the understanding of their individual needs. I can learn about my students by working to assemble information about my students in the beginning of the course so that I can better meet their learning needs and their goals for learning, I can incorporate the experiences of nontraditional aged students into the classroom to develop classroom discussions and learning activities, I can recognize and provide assistance for my students with any physical and learning disabilities that they may have, such as test taking accommodations, supplemental class instruction, and reading (Stanley, n.d). Other ways to help me teach my diverse classroom are to: †¢Learn about my students’ different cultural backgrounds. This can be done by informally asking them about weekend plans or as simply reading historical books about their culture. †¢Giving all of my student’s equal amounts of respect. Avoid giving privileged treatment to anyone in the class, as this can easily be misinterpreted as discrimination. †¢Realizing that a student’s sexual preference has nothing to do with his or her ability to master material and contribute to classroom discussions. I would want to play it safe and do not ask about their private lives. †¢Avoid making assumptions about students’ attentiveness based on their physical appearance and behavior. Different cultures emphasize different ways of showing respect and attention. †¢Being sensitive to the students’ lives at home. A rough or distracting home environment can affect a child’s performance in school. Giving students the benefit of the doubt an d being as understanding as I can be is important. †¢Use a wide variety of teaching strategies that accommodate different learning styles. †¢Encouraging my students to respect and enjoy their diverse cultural heritages. Creating Food days and festivals is a way to celebrate diversity and also having fun  with all students in every culture (Stanley, n.d). In order to incorporate multicultural diversity in my classroom, I will create a bulletin board that will display multicultural diversity. The bulletin board will display the different cultures and religions in my geographic area. The bulletin board will also display many occupations that the student’s parents are currently involved in throughout the surrounding areas. I will also be sure to create an atmosphere of tolerance, acceptance, and caring in my classroom. This is important because I want all of my students to feel welcomed, and valued which I believe will promote fewer impulses to act out. With the atmosphere set for my classroom, it will make my students feel accepted, they will have no reasons to worry. I want my students to feel comfortable in their environment. After all, my classroom will be their learning environment for almost a year. For my bulletin board, I want to display the different ethnic backgrounds. I will make sure that the bulletin’s border will consist of different flags from around the world. In my area, there are many different cultures but the six main cultures are African American, Caucasian, Asian, Hispanic, Latino, and German. I will make sure that these flags are displayed on the border that and will be hung around the edges of my bulletin board. To display many different religions in my classroom, I will make sure that the different symbols will be displayed throughout the board. I will make sure that Christianity, Catholic, Islam, Baptist, and Jewish symbols are displayed correctly to district guidelines regarding religion in school. For my classroom bulletin board, it will also contain fun information for all of my students to learn from. This bulletin board will change every month, and it will contain all of the different cultural holidays that we as a class can celebrate each month. The bulletin board will also contain different images that are associated with these different holidays with information that describes these holidays. Within my bulletin board, I will also include the birthdays of each of my students to remind them that they are all special (Ganly, 2008). The challenge as a teacher, I will encounter in the increasingly diverse society that we have in our country today. It will require me to use many of the best practices that I know to accommodate all of my students. A culturally diverse curriculum is the necessity no matter who is sitting at the desks in my classroom. The humanity that our children  will enter when they leave my classroom will be different, by being more complex and considerably more diverse than it is today. Students that are taught to respect and be inquisitive about different cultures will eventually develop a better understanding of the cultural differences that exist all around them. With this understanding, it will help them to be enhanced citizens and be more productive members of their culture. Both teachers and students need to embrace cultural diversity. Professional, reflective practitioners need to lead the way by ensuring all students learn the suitable content within the context of their own culture and every culture (Merlino, 2007). References Ganly, S. (2008). The Benefits of Diversity in the Classroom on the Teaching Environment. Associated Content, Inc. Retrieved March 24, 2011 from Merlino, R. (2007). Addressing Cultural Diversity in the Classroom. Retrieved March 26, 2011 from Stanley, C. (n.d.). Teaching Tips for the Success of All Students in a Diverse Classroom. Retrieved March 30, 2011 from

Friday, September 13, 2019

Local government taxes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Local government taxes - Essay Example The poorest twenty percent of Americans, on average, pay a combined local and state tax rate of eleven percent while those in the wealthy bracket only pay five and a half percent. This disparity becomes even more pronounced in the Washington State, which possesses the most regressive system of tax with the poorest twenty percent paying an average rate of seventeen percent while the wealthy families pay only 2.3%. What are the most regressive and progressive states? Progressive States The most standout feature of regressive tax states is the progressive nature of income taxes and less reliance on excise and sales taxes. Vermont taxes, for example, are among the least regressive in the US due to their highly progressive income tax and decreased excise and sales taxes (Davis et al 3). Vermont’s tax system is also rendered as a little unfair because of the refundable EITC. Delaware’s income tax regime, however, is not progressive, but the high reliance it has on income taxe s and low utilization of consumption taxes makes its tax system only slightly regressive. The District of Columbia and New York have each achieved a tax system that is close to flat overall via the use of generous EITCs, as well as an income tax that has relatively high top rates (Davis et al 3). However, it should be noted that the least regressive states as far as tax policy is concerned generally still fail to meet the criteria that most people would consider as a minimal standard of tax fairness. In these states, some middle or low-income groups actually pay more local and state income tax than the wealthy actually do. New Jersey is another of the progressive states with their legislature passing a millionaire’s tax, which was vetoed; however, by the Governor for the third straight year. The revenue raised from this would have helped offset property tax decreases for middle class. Finally, Rhode Island came up with an innovative tax idea to reduce incrementally corporate taxes to companies that created employment over a 3-year period in the state, which was a progressive move. Regressive States On the other side, of the tax regimes are ten states that have particularly regressive state and local taxes. These include; Alabama, Pennsylvania, Nevada, Arizona, Illinois, Texas, Tennessee, South Dakota, Florida, and Washington. In these states, residents with lower income are asked to pay almost six times as much income tax as their wealthier counterparts. Middle-income families residing in these states have to pay three times the share of their income when compared to the wealthier families. In a majority of these states, including Nevada, Tennessee, South Dakota and Washington, personal income taxes are not levied on a broad base. The rest of these states, including Illinois and Alabama, do levy income tax, although their income tax is structured in a way that makes them less progressive than, for example, New York and other progressive states. Illinois and Tennessee have an income tax at a flat rate, which taxes the wealthy using similar marginal rates to those used in taxing the poor wage earners. Nevada, Tennessee

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Position Paper on Kouzes & Posner style of leadership Essay

Position Paper on Kouzes & Posner style of leadership - Essay Example The examples and case studies used in this humble work indicate my genuine concern to the area of their focus. To be precise, the paper as a whole tends to demonstrate the best model of leadership- a Kouzes-Posner perspective-that is apt to the changing socio-economic, cultural environment. Successful completion of every venture depends on well assigned goals and effective coordination of human efforts. Certain organizational objectives require long term endurance and strategic approach as the proverb reminds, â€Å"Rome is not built in a day.† In contrast, immediate strategies and intensive actions are essential for short term projects. Regardless of the condition (no matter political or organizational) leaders assigned to integrate the whole HR have pivotal roles and responsibilities in aligning the citizens/workforce to accomplish the intended mission. In other words, â€Å"those who are granted power must be held accountable†. (Gardner 1993, p. 153). The factors that determine the significance of an achievement are the pain, relentless efforts, perseverance and long term training undergone by individuals and groups. At this juncture, how these various factors could be integrated in a highly fragmented, social environment is the major concern of presen t day leadership. To my hunch, Kouzes-Posner could be the best model to illustrate the essentials of leadership. The theme lines of the story of the beautiful movie, ‘Stand and Deliver’ speak about the determining structure of any organization under the leadership of an effective manager. The story of the movie may be taken as a reflection of what actually happens in many organizational setups where raise and fall of a leader take very little time to happen (Jesness, 2002). From the light of the critical evaluation of the content covered in the article, the leadership issue hiding here is understood as ‘Strategic Leadership Failure’. According to

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Empress Wu Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Empress Wu - Essay Example Her thirst and quest for power made her do the unthinkable from murdering her own daughter and son. Empress Wu Zhao was born in Wenshui part of the Shanxi Province in 624 A.D. Her father Wu Shihuo was a rich merchant who educated her daughter well. The education the Empress received at a young age was very pivotal for her political shrewdness and prowess (Woo 5). During the time of her birth, China was under the rule of the Tang dynasty which accorded women more freedom compared to the earlier dynasties. The Emperor at the time Tai Tzong had encouraged cultural awareness in which the women were allowed to be economically independent and were well enlightened in the fields of philosophy, social ethics and culture. The power of female sexuality was at that time widely recognized in medieval china; the ladies of the Sui and Early Tang dynasty elite were relatively independent. They could ride horses, henpeck their husbands and they took charge when their men were away for herdsmen or military duty (Will 128). Due to this, Emperor Wu was adequately educated in the disciplines of music , writing, reading, and Chinese classics. By the time she was thirteen years old, Empress Wu not only recognized her womanly beauty, but she also appreciated her intelligence and wit. Due to her intelligence, Empress Wu was soon recruited to the court of Emperor Tai as a concubine and she doubled up as a secretary in the Imperial Study. She obviously took her chance to study more about official documents and politics. The rest is history. Empress Wu held power for more than a century in one guise or another, firstly she ruled as a consort; the favored wife of Emperor Gaozong, then secondly as the ruler behind the throne of her youngest son and finally herself until her death. She ruled with sheer ruthlessness and decisiveness as she stabilized the Tang dynasty when it seemed to be crumbling and